Yes. Non-Jews may sacrifice to G-d on any private altar they build, anywhere in the world.
Rambam Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 19:16:
וְהַנָּכְרִים מֻתָּרִין לְהַקְרִיב עוֹלוֹת לַשֵּׁם בְּכָל מָקוֹם. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּקְרִיבוּ בְּבָמָה שֶׁיִּבְנוּ.
Non-Jews may offer burnt offerings to G-d in any place, offering them on an altar which they have built.
R Yechiel Michel Tucazinsky in his Gesher Hachaim (section 3, chapter 8, part IV) writes, based on Pirkei d'Rabbi Eliezer (34) that the righteous of the Gentiles will also be resurrected.
I will slay every gentile who will say there is another God... with
the death from which there is no revival; whereas I shall make every
gentile come to life who ...
The Talmud [Bava Batra 15b] names seven prophets who prophesied to non-Jews: Balaam, Balaam's father (Beor), Job, and Job's four friends.
The Midrash says that Balaam was greater than Moses in many respects [Numbers Rabbah 14:20]:
[The Torah says:] And there has not arisen since, in Israel, a prophet [like Moses] [Deut. 34:10]. In Israel there had not ...
“It ceases in Israel” as referring to the Israelite nation. To wit, Yonah is buried in present day Iraq, and Yechezkel is in Iran/Persia. Also don’t forget non-Jewish prophets like Bilaam, who didn’t live in Israel. The list can go on.
He is translating the reason given (by Rashi in Nida 34a) and other locations.
In the original:
משום שלא יהא תינוק ישראל רגיל אצלו במשכב זכור:
Lit: “So that a Jewish child will not grow accustomed to being with him and engage in sodomy.”
I think the original means - based on the order of the words:
“So that a Jewish child will not grow accustomed ...
This question is extremely confusing as it includes multiple contradicting considerations:
Apriori, human life is of the highest priority, and saving it should be considered the greatest Mitzvah of them all (see Pikuach Nefesh that overrides Shabbos, and Rambam here)
One should not endanger his own life to save another (better lose one than two). One should ...
One could easily argue that they were fully Jewish not on the 7th of Sivan, but on the 4th. After all, we learn the halachos of conversion from Har Sinai (Yevamos 46b), and, according to R’ Yosi, they washed their clothes, toveled, and sprinkled on the 4th of Sivan, and so they had to have three days (Shabbos 86b-87a).
The Gemara ibid. 86a makes this point ...
Absolutely not. The Halacha is that one may not throw a non-Jew, even an idolater, into a pit, where he will eventually die (Avodah Zarah 26a, Shulchan Aruch YD 158:1, Tur YD 158, Rambam, Hilchos Avodah Zarah 10:1). (Yes, those Poskim understand that the Gemara refers specifically to the Seven Nations. However, if one is not allowed to actively kill one of ...