Here is a sampling of the interpretations offered by the commentators (all taken from commentaries to the verse in question):
God inscribed (part of) His name on Cain's forehead:
חקק לו אות משמו במצחו
God gave Cain a horn:
ויש אומרים כי האות קרן
God gave Cain courage and removed his fear:
ואחרים אמרו שנתן חוזק בלבו והסיר פחדו ...
The Ibn Ezra says - in his initial explanation - to guard it from animals so they don't enter and sully the garden:
ולשמרה מכל החיות שלא יכנסו שם ויטנפוהו
The Seforno says - if I understand correctly - to guard the fruit/trees? from rotting
ולשמרה. שלא תפסד בהתכת הליחות השרשי הנתך בחום הטבעי וזה כי אותם הפירות הנכבדים היו מולידים תמיד תמורת מה שנתך ...
According to the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (here):
In accordance with the suggestion of the late Professor Eb. Schrader, he is almost universally identified with the AMRAPHEL of Genesis 14:1, etc.
Here's a source in the Jewish Encyclopedia:
The identity of the name has long been a subject of controversy among Assyriologists, and is not ...
Thanks for the interesting question:
Avos Derabbi Nosson 34:5 cites two possibilities, one is that this kiss was particularly sincere or non-sincere, and the other is that these are markers that denote a scribal addition made based on doubt:
וירץ עשו לקראתו ויחבקהו ויפול על צואריו וישקה״ו (שם לג) כולו נקוד מלמד שלא נשקו באמת. ר״ש בן אלעזר אומר נשיקה זו של ...
The Midrash (Megillah 17a) says Yaakov spent 2 years tarrying on his way back from Lavan (18 months in Sukkot and 6 months in Beit-El). So there's no way Rachel was already pregnant when she saw her father.
Even from the verses, what you describe as "just a few chapters later" doesn't seem to have been so quick. In 33:17-18 we have Yaakov arriving in two ...
1) Revelation at Har Sinai was necessary to make it mandatory. As Mizrachi explains, the reason Avraham waited, until commanded, to perform circumcision is because there is greater merit in fulfilling a commanded mitzvah than an uncommanded one.
2) See the Rashba's explanation / understanding of this idea, that they were spiritually sophisticated and ...
They told him that Yaakov left a request of him to forgive the brothers and not take revenge on them as recorded in the next passuk. Rashi is saying that Yaakov never suspected Yosef of harboring vengeful thoughts, And never left this command. However the brothers misrepresented the truth in order to guaranty themselves peace. They apparently did suspect ...
The Pirkei D'Rabbi Eliezer does indeed state that Esav killed Nimrod (ed. Higger ch. 31). This is also found in Yalkut Shimoni (Parashat Tol'dot 110) and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (Parashat Tol'dot 25:27). It is further quoted by Rabbenu Hayyim Paltiel (Parashat Tol'dot 25:32) and Rabbenu Bahya (B'reshit 3:21)
You are also correct that there is a Midrash that ...
The OP asks, why did Adam hide in fear because of his nakedness even though he had already made clothing (the fig leaves) for themselves? Note that Rav Hirsch and Art Scroll translate this as aprons, which has the connotation of something more substantial than loin-cloths.
Rashi points out that it was not physical nakedness, but moral and spiritual, having ...
Abram moved on. He came and settled in the (1)Plains of (2)Mamre, in (3)Hebron, and there he built an altar to God.
Eloney Mamre in Hebrew. Others translate it, 'Terebinths of Mamre.' See note on Genesis 12:6. Josephus states that it was by an oak called Ogyges (Ancient One) (Antiquities 1:10:4; Wars 4:9:7).
An Amorite ...
No. They were not reincarnated.
Genesis 38- they're being mentioned in the present tense of the story.
Numbers 26- after the plague that killed many people in Klal Yisrael (see previous chapter), the Torah takes a census of the people remaining by going through each of the 12 tribes.
Since the Torah is starting from Yehuda and discusses his descendants,...
Pirkê D'Rabbi Eliezer (ch. 3) states that water was created on the first day:
שמונה דברים נבראו ביום ראשון, ואלו הן: .... ורוח ומים, שנאמר ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים
Eight things were created on the first day, namely... wind (spirit) and water, as it said, "And the wind of God was moving upon the surface of the waters".
There are a few Midrashic sources that tell us that the animal kingdom seemed to take care of things:
In Pirkei D'Rebbi Eliezer 21 it notes that firstly his sheepdog did 'shmira' over the body, and then a raven showed Adam what to do.
הכלב שהיה משמר צאנו של הבל הוא היה שומרו מכל חית השדה ומעוף השמי' והיו אדם ועזרו יושבים ובוכים ומתאבלי' עליו ולא היו יודעים ...
Radak says two reasons.
1 - Since Hashem spoke to Adam directly, therefore the snake communicated with Chava.
כי לא היתה מצות האל לאשה אע״פ שאדם אמר לאשה מצות האל
2 - Since the snake felt it would be easier to convince a lady to do something wrong.
ואמר אל האשה ולא אמר לאיש, האשה קרובה להתפתות יותר מן האיש
Rashi to Bereishis 25:11 quotes the Gemara in Sotah 14 that, as Avraham foresaw that Eisav would descend from Yitzchak, he was afraid to give Yitzchak the Brachos, fearing that they would go to Eisav as well. He decided to leave it to HaShem whether Yitzchak should get the Brachos or not, and, indeed, HaShem gave them to Yitzchak in the aforementioned passuk....
Hizkuni (3:10) Rabbenu Hayyim Paltiel (3:10), Tur (3:10), and Abravanel (Genesis ch. 3) suggest that their loincloths were minimal and they were therefore still embarrassed. Radak (3:8) writes that that were embarrassed since their loincloths didn't even fully cover their nakedness.
The Tosafist compilation Moshav Z'kenim writes that they were embarrassed ...
Rambam discusses the beginnings of idolatry in Hilchot Avodat Kochavim 1:1-2
בימי אנוש טעו בני האדם טעות גדול ונבערה עצת חכמי אותו הדור ואנוש עצמו
מן הטועים היה וזו היתה טעותם אמרו הואיל והאלהים ברא כוכבים אלו וגלגלים
להנהיג את העולם ונתנם במרום וחלק להם כבוד והם שמשים המשמשים לפניו
ראויין הם לשבחם ולפארם ולחלוק להם כבוד וזהו רצון האל ברוך הוא לגדל
Rashbam in his commentary to Genesis 41:10 lists various names of biblical figures that are not actually the person's given name, but the name that all kings of that place are called by:
כל פרעה בלשון מצרים מלך וכן כל מלכי מצרים נקראים ושל פלשתים אבימלך אפילו בימי דוד בשנותו את טעמו לפני אבימלך ושל ירושלים מלכי צדק ביהושוע אדני צדק מלך ירושלם ובימי דודעל ...
R. David Kamchi explains the word choice as follows (I'm taking the first part from here):
as rendered by Onkelos, "serve Me" by carrying out what I command you ( in order to become perfect). This is also that meaning of the word התהלך in Genesis 24,40 as well as in Genesis 48,15. It is a reference to serving the lord in thought and deed. All service of ...
Rambam explains this prohibition as follows:
Guide for the Perplexed 3:48
It is prohibited to cut off a limb of a living animal and eat it,
because such act would produce cruelty, and develop it: besides, the
heathen kings used to do it: it was also a kind of idolatrous worship
to cut off a certain limb of a living animal and to eat it.
This is addressed in Brachos 55a. The reason given is that he conducted himself ברבנות. Seemingly an excessive degree of acting in command.
דא״ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות
This is brought as a proof to Rabbi Yehuda's statement there that all who conduct themselves this way will have their lives shortened.
Rashi (Devarim 1:3) addresses this issue.
Rashi points out
that Moshe followed the example of
Yaakov Avinu and waited to rebuke Bnei
Yisroel at the end of his life. Rashi goes
on to explain (among other reasons why not to rebuke prior to close to death)that Yaakov was concerned
that if he had criticized them earlier he
would have driven them away, and they
The Talmud gives an answer:
It was taught in a baraita: Shamayim means esh umayim, [fire and water], which teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, brought them and combined them together, and made the heavens from them. [Chagigah 12a]
There are a number of sources that point to the fact that Shem did indeed live a long life and also lived to see some of the personalities that you mention above.
Firstly by way of introduction, the Gemara in Bava Basra 121b highlights Shem as one of seven people, whose longevity in physical years collectively spanned the history of mankind. It writes there:
As the comments have stated; Gentile ancestry is tribal, and therefore strictly paternally-traced as far as halacha is concerned. Halacha doesn't really care if someone's a Dudanite or Caphtorite; but it does matter if they're Ammonite, Moabite, Edomite, or Egyptian. Regardless, it follows the father.
However it's kind of a moot point today, as we operate ...
The Peirush Yafeh Toar to Bereishis Rabbah 56:10 says that the reason is because Avraham Avinu was a greater Tzadik, so the name he gave (Yireh), takes precedence:
ואף על פי ששם שלם קודם ליראה מכל מקום הקדים בהרכבה יראה דאברהם צדיק