The Mishna Brura OC 549 sk 3 says to continue fasting if you accidentally ate.
In OC 568 sk 3 he says you can still say Aneinu at Mincha if it is a public fast day (as opposed to a personal one).
In OC 568 sk 8 he says that you do not need to fast again on a different day for accidental eating on the public fasts as well as any personal fast that has a ...
The Gemara in Megilla 6a says Rebbi Yehuda Hanasi went to the bath house on 17 Tammuz.
The Shulchan Aruch OC 550:2 rules that bathing is permitted on the 'minor' fasts and is only forbidden on Tisha B'av and Yom Kippur.
The Mishna Brura there (sk 6) says that a meticulous person ("baal nefesh") should be stringent on all the 5 afflictions of tisha b'av (...
The Nitei Gavriel Pesach 2 Chapter 43:9 brings in the name of the Shevet Halevi that since a convert is as if he is newly born there is a question whether he is still considered a Bechor. Therefore the Nitei Gavriel concludes that it is best that he should either make a Siyum or be part of a Seudas Mitzva.
Per Mishna Berura Orach Chaim 567:3:11 if a person is bothered by the lack of brushing their teeth or the smell/taste in their mouth, they are permitted to rinse their mouth on public fasts, however one should tip their head forward in order that it should not reach their throat.
According to this article, most Poskim do allow one to brush one's teeth on the three minor fasts, especially if they are going to be in some level of discomfort.
..While the Kaf Hachaim (OC 567:13) forbids rinsing even with less than a revi’is, most poskim are more lenient, especially when one is uncomfortable. Thus, the Rema (Darchei Moshe OC 567:2), ...
Perhaps it includes the Fast of the Firstborn. Contemporary practice is to override it, so I don't know if there's any liturgy for it, but maybe at some time in some communities, it was/is observed as a fast, with its own liturgy.
Or maybe the sixth fast is the non-calendar-fixed "Ta'anit Dibbur," which the front cover says is included.
You end your fast when it becomes dark, independent of how long you have been already fasting.
Source: Igrot Moshe OC 3:96
See also Shevet HaLevi 8:261:2 who argues and says to stop based on you original location's times. It's not clear if he would hold this lechumra as well.
The Rama rules in OC 558 that the prohibitions on wine and meat remain in force for only the night of 11 Av. The Mishna Berura (sk 4) notes that this is meant to be specific, and the other prohibitions do not apply immediately following the fast.
Alshich (to 5:5-8) says that indeed she didn't eat at the first feast. Among many other things, this explains why the first one is just described as "the party which Esther made" (5:5), while to the second one Achashverosh and Haman came "to drink with Queen Esther" (7:1).
The Talmud (Pesachim 54b) states that only for Tisha bAv must we be stringent for Bein Hashemashot. There is an opinion in Rishonim that only regarding the Bein Hashemashot at the beginning of the day is Tisha bAv unique, but all fasts require being stringent at the end because we have to wait until it is certainly night to uproot the current status (chazaka)...
Note 10 in Rav Eliezer Melamed's article on the "lighter fasts" states as follows:
וכיום ההוראה הרווחת לנשים אשכנזיות שלא לצום. ועיין בפסקי תשובות תקנ,
א, שהביא דעות מופלגות להיתר, שכל הנשים הראויות לילד פטורות מהצום, כדי
שיהיה להן כוח לילד. ויש אמרו שתפדה את הצום בצדקה. ע"כ. ואין נוהגים
להורות כמותם, אבל במקום ספק אפשר לצרף את דבריהם להיתר.
Perhaps because each of the dates commemorate multiple things.
Five Tragedies happened on the 17th of Tammuz:
Moshe broke the Tablets
The Tamid offering was interrupted
A Sefer Torah was burned
An idol was placed in the Beit Hamikdash
The walls of Jerusalem were breached during the second temple
The 9th of Av has always been a day of tragedy, and many ...
Please see "The Segal Guide to Fasting For Yom Kippur (from a Medical Perspective)," written by a physician. The very first point he deals with is the thirst issue you raised.
Most people think the difficulty about fasting is feeling "hungry". However, avoiding thirst is much more important for how you feel. Not only do you avoid the discomfort of thirst ...
Considering Monica's point about year distributions, here's a refinement of Gershon's data (using the frequency table on Remy Landau's Hebrew Calendar page, here):
Tzom Gedaliah falls on Monday or Thursday in the year types גכה, זחא, זשג, גכז, זחג, זשה. This is 40.08% of all years.
Asarah B'Teves can't occur on Monday, but it can be on Thursday, only in the ...
These fasts are counting from Nisan as the first month (the Jewish religious calendar).
The fast of the 4th month is 17 Tammuz.
The fast of the 5th month is 9 Av.
Here, the fast of the 7th month is Tzom Gedalia (usually observed on 3 Tishrei) although Yom Kippur also falls in the 7th month.
The fast of the 10th month is 10 Tevet.
These fasts commemorate ...
From a personal perspective, I have found that the easiest fasts I have had, came when Yom Kippur was on a Monday, and Sunday morning I did a 3-4 hour run (training for a fall marathon).
My theory is that knowing how dumb an idea it is to do a 3-4 hour run, mere hours before a 25 hour fast, I try to compensate by drinking the rest of the day, every 10-20 ...
You can listen to him discuss it here at 56:12. He says it isn't rau'i l'achilat adam (fit for human consumption) so it isn't considered eating. He quotes some opinions that it is a problem of washing the inside of the mouth on Yom Kippur, but he doesn't seem so impressed by the idea.
Only Yom Kippur and Tisha b'Av are 25-hour fasts. The others are minor fasts, from dawn (first light, before sunrise) until nightfall (full dark). The minor fasts are:
Fast of Gedaliah (3 Tishrei)
Fast of Esther (13 Adar)
Fast of the Firstborn (for those to whom it applies) (14 Nisan)
You can read more about these fasts at Judaism 101.
About the second part of the question: Yalkut Shimoni (to Esther 4:16) says that he limited the fast to those "found in Shushan" because they were the ones who had eaten at Achashverosh's feast. The Jews in the rest of the empire weren't guilty of that.
[That they too were in danger is attributed by R. Shimon bar Yochai (Megillah 12a) to their having bowed ...
The Vilna Gaon (OC 470, s.v. v'ein) explains the opinion that exempts women from fasting as due to the fact that women lack k'dushas b'choros (the sanctified status of firstborns). A male with an older sister also lacks k'dushas b'chor since he is not a firstborn, so the opinion that exempts the older sister would certainly exempt the brother.
In fact, a ...
Fast days are not optional. The "minor" means that they start at daybreak rather than the night before (as do tish'a b'av and yom kippur). Note the rules quoted below for when one may skip the fast (because of illness).
Yom Kippur is required by the Torah and Ta'anis Esther is connected to Purim not the destruction of the temple. Once the temple will have ...
The question of Kiddush on Yom Kippur is discussed first in the Gemara Eiruvin
The Shibolei Haleket (312) writes that because one does not normally eat on Yom Kippur, the Sages never required mention of the holiday in kiddush or even bentching. In fact, making Kiddush would be improper because one might see kiddush being made and think that it should be ...
The custom of reciting Avinu Malkeinu repetitively by the chazzan and congregation is brought in Mateh Efrayim (תרב סי"ג), without any explanation. [The Mateh Efrayim himself writes to begin from א"מ קרע, however the Ktzey Hamateh at the bottom brings the custom to start from א"מ החזירנו בתשובה]. The only reason I could find is mentioned in שער יששכר מאמר ...
Yom HaShoah falls on the 27th of Nissan. It is forbbiden to fast during the month of Nissan (Shulchan Aruch OC 429:2). I've never met anyone who fasts on that day, and I would question anyone who does.
There are a variety of things that people do on Tisha B'Av. Many people spend most of the morning reading and discussing the Kinnos. It is also permitted and widespread to learn certain bits of Torah that are relevant to Tisha B'Av. These include Eicha, Iyov, the story of the destruction of the Temple which is related in Gittin 56b-58a and Sanhedrin 104, the ...
The Debriciner, Rav Moshe Stern in Shaalos U'Teshuvos Be’er Moshe 3:77 says it is permissible. The reasoning is that the Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 550:2 says that bathing is permitted on the three fasts (Tzom Gedalia, Asara B’Teves, and Shiva Asar B’Tammuz). Although the Acharonim argue on the Michaber and our minhag is to be Machmir, the Pri Megadim says ...