Mishne Berurah (238, Shaar HaTziyun 1) writes that the Midrash (Pirkei d'Rebbi Eliezer 46 and Tanchumah Parsha Ki Sisa 36) writes that Moshe Rabenu was taught the Written Torah during the day and the Oral Torah at night. From this Midrash the Ba'er Hetev (2) (and Arizal [ed]) concludes that one should not learn the written Torah at night.
The Pri Megadim ...
Only Yom Kippur and Tisha b'Av are 25-hour fasts. The others are minor fasts, from dawn (first light, before sunrise) until nightfall (full dark). The minor fasts are:
Fast of Gedaliah (3 Tishrei)
Fast of Esther (13 Adar)
Fast of the Firstborn (for those to whom it applies) (14 Nisan)
You can read more about these fasts at Judaism 101.
I live in Sydney Australia and I can say definitively that yes the custom is to stay up all night and learn on Shavuot night. I have never heard the suggestion that staying up all night is related to the time of sunrise/sunset at that time of year. I have many friends in South Africa and can say that they have the same custom as well.
My inclination is that ...
Avudraham cites the following verses for a couple of the lines:
"ki vanu vacharta" from D'varim 7:7
"v'osanu kidashta mikol ha'amim" from D'varim 26:19
He also gives these non-citation explanations of the sources of the ideas:
"t'chila l'mikra'ei kodesh" due to the fact that shabas is listed first among the holidays (in Vayikra 23)
"zecher liy'tzi'as ...
Regarding questions 1 and 2, the Rama rules (OC 596) that one should not blow the shofar unnecessarily on Rosh HaShana just like one avoids musical instruments on other Shabbatot and Yamim Tovim. So it would seem forbidden to blow for the sick person at night. The Magen Avraham there rules that one cannot practice on the first day in the afternoon for the ...
The Shulchan Aruch (OC 89:5) discusses what to do if you were eating before dawn (alot hashachar; the earliest time for Shacharit), and then dawn happened (and now you are obligated in Shacharit): must you stop eating or not. It seems from here that you are allowed to eat so long as dawn has not happened. The Mishna Berura there notes that if the eating is ...
According to the Siddur HaRashash as set forth in Shaar HaKavvanot 89a(the paragraph that starts with the words זהו הסדר).
Tikun Leil Shavuot:
Genesis 1:1-Gen 2:4
Gen 50:24-Ex 1:3
The Talmud (Megillah 7b) very clearly rules that one who ate his Purim meal at night has not fulfilled his obligation to have a meal on Purim.
The Mordechai (Moed, Remez 787) quotes the Raavyah who (as understood by the Bach OC 695) rules that the night of Purim should have a seudah, and the Gemara is only saying that the obligation for the main meal must ...
Shabbat starts no later than sunset (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 293:2).
Sunset is a subjective phenomenon describing the apparent descent of the Sun below the horizon. It happens because the Earth is round and rotates about its own axis much more quickly than it revolves around the Sun, so observers on its surface observe, once per rotation, their part of ...
In the siddur of Rabbi Shabtai from Rashkov, which presents kavvanot of the Arizal (many books do, it's just the one I have at hand), it says, in the section 'Kriat Shma she-al Ha-Mita':
אין ללמוד מקרא בלילה כי הקורא בלי פירוש עומדת בעשייה מקום תגבורת
הדינין ואין ראוי לעוררן בזמן שליטתן שהוא לילה
One should not learn Miqra at night because reading [...
The seventh day of Pesah is associated in rabbinic literature with the splitting of the sea (for example, Rashi on Exodus 14:5 s.v. vayyuggad lemelekh mitzrayim writes that "on the fifth and sixth days they chased after them, and the night of the seventh they entered the sea, and in the morning uttered song, namely the seventh day of Pesah, and thus we sing ...
Nitei Gavriel Hilchos Yom Hakipurim page 181 note 24 in the name of Siach Yitzchak that we wear a Talis at Kol Nidrei based on the Yerushalmi Chagiga 1:5 that says that one needs to wear a Talis at the time of Hataras Nedarim.
He goes on to say that one should only make a Bracha on the Talis up to the time he would normally Daven Mincha.
The Pischei Tshuva in Yoreh Deah siman siff 195 #19 mentions a minhag not to go to the cemetery to pray during their Nida days.
See here starting by footnote 12 for some more information. http://shulchanaruchharav.com/Home-Database/default.aspx?pageid=women31
The first paragraph of kiddush is Biblical verses. The second paragraph is part of the core text of prayers, which were presumably finalized by Anshei Knesset HaGedolah, "The Men of the Great Assembly", i.e. the rabbinic leaders during the early Second Temple period, about 2300 years ago. (See Rambam Berachot 1:5)
The same goes for something like the Amida ...
Dose of Halacha explains:
The Gemara (Nidda 17a) writes that it is dangerous to leave peeled garlic, onion or egg overnight due to ruach ra’ah, evil spirit.
This halacha only applies if the entire onion, garlic or egg is peeled. However, if part of it remains unpeeled, or if it has already been mixed with any other food, it may be eaten (Kaf Hachaim ...
The time for the mitzvah is tied to the se'udah which is held during the day.
The Ran (Megilla 3b in the pages of the Rif) addresses the issue. Despite the fact that megilla reading varies, the se’udat Purim does not; it must be scheduled on the 14th or 15th (depending on whether the city is walled). Hence, the Ran claims, since mishloach manot is part of ...
tl;dr - it's kabbalah (likely), or it's to reject karaites (highly unlikely), it's coincidental because the evening prayer is optional (very likely).
To me, the most likely option is that this is based on Kabbalah, although for the opposite reason of what you suggest (not because angels only say it during the day, but because they only say it at night). ...
According to this article about that Ekirch book, coffee was one of the reasons the custom of second-sleep ended. In this article about the history of the tikkun leil Shavuot custom (pdf), Rabbi Dr. Schein attributes coffee as one of the factors for staying up all night on Shavuot.
Also in the Schein article, however, he also attributes the custom of the ...
The Piskei Tshuvos 581:3 brings in the footnotes from the Aruch Hashulchan seif 12 that one should not blow at night the whole month of elul even to practice because we don't do hissarirus at night.He also brings the Igros Moshe 4:21 that when the Rama said that there are those who blow shofar at night he meant after mincha or places who daven maariv during ...
Summarizing from p. 349 of this book:
The custom originated from Rav Meir of Rothenberg who stated that on the night of Yom Kippur we recite the 13 "middot" - Attrubutes of Mercy, multiple times during our tefillah (after the Amidah). There is a midrash (mentioned in Talmud Rosh Hashannah 17b) that G-d wrapped himself in a tallit, similar to a Chazzan when ...
Birkot HaShachar can, according to the Magen Avraham (47:13), can be said as early as midnight, but I'm not sure if that's the general custom, because I've noticed that people usually wait until alot hashachar.
In general, the Shulchan Aruch (89:3) says that you can't perform anything for yourself, but doing things for the purposes of a mitzvah is ok. ...
Bottom line is that Sepharadim's minhag is like the Geonim's psak.
In Yalkut Yossef (of R Yitzchak Yossef, son of R Ovadia), Hilchot Shabbat, Siman 293, halacha 2-3, the psak is:
ב. זמן צאת השבת בכל ערי הארץ הוא בערך כעשרים דקות אחר השקיעה. והמחמירים
מוסיפים מחול על הקודש עד כחצי שעה אחר השקיעה. [...] [end of halacha dropped by me]
ג. אולם ראוי ...
Let's assume you're far down as Cape Town at 33° 55′ 31″ S.
Candle lighting on the first day of Chanuka (this year, 5775) at sunset would be at 19:55 and if you wait for night then it's at 20:25.
However, one can light as early as Plag HaMincha which will be at 18:25 - that may be the simplest way to get the children involved - light as early as ...
Mishne Brurah (695, 16) cites a dispute among Poskim as to whether one may recite Al Hanisim in bentching after davening Maariv after Purim (where he does not say Al Hanissim). To avoid the disagreement he quotes Magen Avraham that one should bentch first and then daven Maariv.
This is sourced in the Sefer Tahara K'halacha which brings that if a a woman is waiting for her husband who is out of town but does not know when he will return should be tovel so she will be mutar to him whenever he arrives. However, he brings segulos that the woman should perform to prevent any danger. This includes a knife under her pillow,or cover ...
Shulchan Aruch in siman 481 writes:
A person is required to involve themselves in the laws of Pesach and Yetzias Mitzraim and discuss the signs and wonders that Hashem did for our forefathers until he is 'caught' by sleep.
Be'er Hagola points out this is all from the Tur in the name of the Tosefta, based on the story With Rabi Eleazar and Rabi Yehoshua ...