Episode #125 of the Stack Overflow podcast is here. We talk Tilde Club and mechanical keyboards. Listen now
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If a man and a woman married to a different man have sexual intercourse, they are both liable to the death penalty by strangulation (Leviticus 20:10; Mishna Sanhedrin 11:1). The death penalty has not been administered since the Sanhedrin left their court room on the Temple mount in the years preceding the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (nor ...


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Rabbi Michael Broyde (a Justice of the Beth Din of America) has a full article of the topic available in English here. He surveys a wide range of opinions from R Eliezer Waldenberg (author of Tzitz Eliezer), who holds that the prohibition of reporting does not apply in a just society, to that of R Moshe Feinstein (author of Igrot Moshe), who holds that the ...


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The Gemara This would seem to be rooted in a machlokes Tannaim, between R’ Elazar son of R’ Shimon and R’ Yehoshua ben Karchah. As recorded in Bava Metzi’a 83b, R’ Elazar was appointed as a police officer for the Romans (read: if anyone was a thief, he would arrest them and lead them to jail, where they would shortly be killed). R’ Yehoshua ben Karchah ...


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R' Samson Raphael Hirsch, when describing your case about a thief's slavery, writes that the Torah's system of punishment is much better than the prevailing system of imprisonment, which basically destroys the perpetrator. This implies that jail is never found as a punishment in Judaism. That being said, there are times where someone is guilty of a severe ...


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Rambam Hilchot Rotzeach 4:3: הַמַּכֶּה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בְּאֶבֶן אוֹ בְּאֶגְרוֹף וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אוֹמְדִין אוֹתוֹ. אִם אֲמָדוּהוּ לְחַיִּים נוֹתֵן חֲמִשָּׁה דְּבָרִים וְנִפְטָר. וַאֲפִלּוּ חָלָה הַמֻּכֶּה וְהִכְבִּיד וּמֵת מֵחֲמַת הַמַּכָּה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר. וְאִם אֲמָדוּהוּ לְמִיתָה אוֹסְרִין אֶת הַמַּכֶּה בְּבֵית הַסֹּהַר מִיָּד וּמַמְתִּינִים לָזֶה. אִם ...


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Artscroll answers your questions in their notes to this Mishna In general, once someone has been sentenced to death, the court must execute him on the same day to spare him the emotional agony of waiting for his death. R Akiva rules, however, that since the Torah requires everyone to know about the execution of the rebellious sage, his execution ...


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I. When Eldad and Medad prophesied that Moshe would die and Yehoshua would take over, Yehoshua complains to Moshe: וַיַּעַן יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן מְשָׁרֵת מֹשֶׁה מִבְּחֻרָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנִי מֹשֶׁה כְּלָאֵם (Bamidbar 11:28) Here's what Rashi writes: הטל עליהם צרכי צבור והם כלים מאליהם (ספרי) ד"א תנם אל בית הכלא לפי שהיו מתנבאים משה מת ויהושוע ...


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The Maharsha (Bava Basra 119a) discusses the case of the m'kosheish eitzim (the man who gathered wood on the Sabbath, see B'midbar 15:32-36). The Maharsha mentions that, according to Targum Yonasan (B'midbar 15:32), the man was not gathering wood for actual use. Instead, he was gathering wood in order to precipitate a divine revelation of the appropriate ...


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The torah itself never discusses imprisonment. Penalties for transgressions include restitution, financial penalties, lashes, becoming a slave, and capital punishment, but imprisonment as a final outcome isn't discussed. (I don't know how to prove a negative, sorry.) See Ypnypn's answer for something that looks like imprisonment but isn't. And ...


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Yes! The Rambam mentions at least twice, cases when people are imprisoned as they are a danger to society. Since they cannot be killed by Bet Din they are imprisoned on a starvation diet and then overfed, in the hope that they will die of overeating. The Rambam describes this in משנה תורה - ספר נזקים - הלכות רוצח ושמירת נפש פרק ד מכניסין אותו לכיפה, והוא ...


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The Talmudic tractate called Bava Kamma, in many places, discusses the meaning of the various "damagers" mentioned in the Torah for various liabilities. The first page of Bava Kamma, explains that the "ox" as a damager, by Torah Law, is something that must be described as containing "Ru-ach Chaim" (a living soul). An animal which has a living soul of its ...


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The only way to be sure Lehalacha that a man is withholding testimony is if 2 Eidim (witnesses) were to witness that this person (or these 2 people) saw the occurrence, and they can only be sure he saw the occurrence by seeing the occurrence themselves at the same time. So there would be no point compelling the "withholder" to testify, as those witnesses ...


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The Limmud for "before the punishment" is from Kaasher Zamam, not Kaasher Asu (what they planned to do, not what they succeeded in doing). With a Challal, when the Eidim are made Zomminim, the whole Challal is undone and it is as if it never happened. So in the end they were only planning, they didn't succeed, so they are still under to the din of Kaasher ...


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The idea of letting off all death penalty defendants was broached in the Mishnah (Makkot 7a): רבי טרפון ורבי עקיבא אומרים אילו היינו בסנהדרין לא נהרג אדם מעולם רשב״ג אומר אף הן מרבין שופכי דמים בישראל R. TARFON AND R. AKIBA SAY: WERE WE MEMBERS OF A SANHEDRIN, NO PERSON WOULD EVER BE PUT TO DEATH. [THEREUPON] RABBAN SIMEON B. GAMALIEL REMARKED, [YEA] ...


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The answer is: Because in the case of non-monetary issues it's a compulsory Mitzvah (and not voluntary) to give testimony. As the Sefer HaChinuch (Mitzva 122) describes it: מצות עדות - להגיד העדות בפני הדַיָנים. בכל מה שנדעהו, בין שיתחיב בעדות מיתה או ממון המועד עליו או שיהיה הצלתו בממונו או בנפשו, שנאמר (ויקרא ה א) והוא עֵד או ראה או ידע אם לא יגיד ונשא ...


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I may be misunderstanding your definition of double jeopardy: it seems to mean the inability to try a person a second time of the same charges, not to use witnesses more than once. If so, HaRav Hershel Schachter, in his Sanhedrin shiurim (#103, for example), points to a Minchat Chinuch (82:4) and a Mishnah in Sanhedrin 32a (4:1) - מחזירים בין לזכות בין ...


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Rambam Hilchot Rotzeach ch.2 halacha 5 regarding a murderer who cannot be executed due to a technicality (such as hiring a hitman or indirectly causing his death). His beating and imprisonment is NOT to kill him. If the king did not execute them, nor did the court deem the time as such to require strengthening the strictures against murder, it should ...


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Sanhedrin 40b: תנו רבנן מכירים אתם אותו נכרי הרג ישראל הרג התריתם בו קיבל עליו התראה התיר עצמו למיתה המית בתוך כדי דיבור (paraphrased) They ask the witnesses, "did he accept the warning and accept that he would be killed?" Rashi on התיר עצמו למיתה: התיר עצמו למיתה - שכשהתריתם בו אל תעבור שאתה מתחייב מיתה פלונית הוא אומר על מנת כן אני עושה דאם לא ...


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For the main question see Sanhedrin 40b-41a: אמר עולא מניין להתראה מן התורה שנאמר (ויקרא כ, יז) ואיש אשר יקח את אחותו בת אביו או בת אמו וראה את ערותה אטו בראייה תליא מילתא אלא עד שיראוהו טעמו של דבר אם אינו ענין לכרת תנהו ענין למלקות דבי חזקיה תנא (שמות כא, יד) וכי יזיד איש על רעהו להרגו בערמה שהתרו בו ועדיין הוא מזיד דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא (במדבר טו, ...


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As far as the second question, Sanhedrin 8b: ר' יוסי בר יהודה אומר חבר א"צ התראה לפי שלא ניתנה התראה אלא להבחין בין שוגג למזיד A scholar does not need to be warned, as warning is only given to differentiate between accidental and intentional sin [and the scholar is presumed to be aware that it is forbidden without being told]


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Source of incarceration in the Torah through Beis Din (Moshe Rabeinu) Vayikra 24,12: 'ויניחהו במשמר לפרש להם על פי ה And they put the person who cursed in prison inorder to learn from Hashem what should be done Also Bamidbar 15,34: וַיַּנִּיחוּ אֹתוֹ בַּמִּשְׁמָר כִּי לֹא פֹרַשׁ מַה יֵּעָשֶׂה לוֹ. The Sifra says that the Mekoshesh Bamidbar who ...


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Shulchan Aruch Harav Choshen Mishpat, The Laws of Damages to Body and Soul, Paragraph 11, quoting the Rambam and the Shulchan Aruch, writes: וכן המוסר אפילו ממון קל של ישראל ביד נכרים אם הוחזק במסירות ג' פעמים מיתתו בכל אדם מפני שהוא כרודף כמו שנתבאר בהלכות נזקי ממון Whoever reports even a small amount of Jewish money to the Non-Jews, if he did it 3 ...


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hilchos meisira is very complicated and a rov has to be consulted. A mosser has a din of a non jew (yoreh deah 281:3) it is a very bad thing to be a mosser. However when there are laws in the land and chillul Hashem then it becomes a diff story.(choshen Misphat 388:12). See meseches Bava Matzia 83b the story with Rabbi Elazar and the king and the Ritva on ...


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While not an actual trial, the Mishnayoth in Sanhedrin starting at Chapter 3 describe precisely how various trials are run. Starting with how to choose the judges for a small 3-man Bet Din to how the 72-man Sanhedrin functions. Then we have details about the cross-examination, how to document who-said-what and how and when the final vote is taken. Finally,...


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Karet does not require witnesses or a warning. These are required for a punishment given by a human court, so that the human court knows that the sin was intentional. So for a penalty of lashes or the death penalty. However, if there is a presence of witnesses and warning then the court can give lashes for an offence that is chayev karet. (Source: Makot, ...


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Lashon hara is not a problem when it is intended to serve as a benefit to society rather than just as gossip. As far as diyun l'chaf zechus, according to the Rambam in his Pirush Mishnayos on the relevant passage in Avos, diyun l'chaf zechus would be where an action that was open to interpretation contradicted what was already known of a person's character....


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What is the problem with the simple understanding of the Minshna? The Minshna is saying that we must try to get people to do Teshuva. Having the ability to say a statement which has the meaning that "I am not guilty I am just a victim" Which will make people understand this behavior that really this person is not guilty (since this person had the ability to ...


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Rambam Hilchot Edut 5:3-4: מַה שְּׁנַיִם נִמְצָא אֶחָד מֵהֶן קָרוֹב אוֹ פָּסוּל בָּטֵל הָעֵדוּת אַף שְׁלֹשָׁה וְהוּא הַדִּין לְמֵאָה. נִמְצָא אֶחָד מֵהֶן קָרוֹב אוֹ פָּסוּל בְּטֵלָה הָעֵדוּת בֵּין בְּדִינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת בֵּין בְּדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁנִּתְכַּוְּנוּ כֻּלָּם לְהָעִיד. אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִתְכַּוְּנוּ כֻּלָּם ...


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