The Rambam (Hilchot Rotzeach uShmirat Nefesh 5:11) writes
If the [unintentional] killer is slain within the Sabbath limits of the city of
refuge, the one who slayed him should be executed.
see also end of 5:12
Thus, if a person kills unintentionally and takes refuge at the altar,
and the blood redeemer kills him there, he should be executed as if ...
Mishna in Makoth 2:7
וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁהָרַג , אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם
A Cohen Gadol who kills goes to the Ir Miklat forever.
They would have to appoint another one, to do the Avoda on Yom Kippour, as the first one loses his job as Kohen Gadol, as the Rambam הלכות רוצח ושמירת נפש at (7:14) says about all those sentenced to Ir Miklat, after they ...
He stays in his Ir Miklat, in all cases even to save a life, as the Rambam explains in Hilchot Rotzeach uShmirat Nefesh 7:8
A person who was exiled to a city of refuge should never leave his
city of refuge, not even to perform a mitzvah or to deliver testimony
- neither testimony involving monetary matters, nor testimony involving a capital case. He ...
The Rambam rules (Rotzeiach 7:5 (English)) that one who is in exile in an Ir Miklat and kills unintentionally inside his Ir Miklat, is 'exiled' to a different neighborhood in that city, where presumably he is safe from threats. A Levi who lives in an Ir Miklat ordinarily who kills unintentionally is exiled to a different Ir Miklat.
This is the matter of a Tannaic dispute recorded in the Mishna (Makkot 2:7), Makkot (11a):
רוצח שיצא חוץ לתחום, ומצאו גואל הדם--רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר, מצוה ביד גואל הדם, ורשות ביד כל אדם; רבי עקיבה אומר, רשות ביד גואל הדם, וכל אדם אין חייבין עליו.
A murderer who left the bounds [of the city of refuge] R. Jose the Galilean says: it is a mitsvah for ...
The Sefer HaChinuch writes as follows:
Sefer HaChinuch Mitzvah # 410
ונוהגת מצוה זו בזמן שישראל על אדמתן וסנהדרין של שבעים ואחד יושבין
במקומן המוכן להם בירושלם לדין דיני נפשות
And this commandment is operative during the time that Israel is on their land and the
Sanhedrin of 71 is sitting in their place that is prepared for them in
Rambam Rotzeah 7:9 (English)
אחד כוהן גדול המשוח בשמן המשחה, ואחד המרובה בבגדים; ואחד כוהן גדול העובד, ואחד הכוהן שעבר: כל אחד מארבעתן שמת, מחזיר את הרוצח.
If any of the current or former Kohanim Gedolim die, he goes free. As the Mishna (Megillah 1:9) states: the only difference between a current and former Kohein Gadol is that the bull offered on ...
I don't know about the roads, but the Mishna (Makkot 11A) tells us that the mother of the Kohen Gadol would give food and clothing to the accidental murderers in the cities of refuge, so they wouldn't pray for the Kohen Gadol to die.
This certainly indicates that the cities of refuge were operational.
Regarding your second bullet point, as to whether he would be punished if he kills the Goel Hadom, this is dealt with by the Mishneh Lamelech, Hilchot Rotzeach, 1:15 who says he will not be punished.
This is based on the Gemara on Sanhedrin 82a:
and it appears that he is not punished for this, as Chazal have mentioned that if Zimri would have killed ...
The death of the Kohen Gadol absolved the accidental murderer of his need to remain in the city of refuge, and the avenger could no longer kill him. The avenger cannot kill him no matter where he is residing after the death of the Kohen Gadol. Thus, the accidental murderers would pray for the death of the Kohen Gadol, and his mother would try to appease ...
Madanei Asher page 168 discusses this question and answers as follows.
Shaalos U'Tshuvis Radbaz - Volume 2 #772 says that a Jewish king is not judged and therefore would not go to exile. Regarding prior to the time of Yanai Hamelech when Jewish kings were judged he says even there a Jewish king would not be exiled based on the Gemara - Makos 10a that a ...
In the first instance (hap-tip to Joseph for the list) of the use of "האל" in the Torah meaning "these," Bereishit 19:8, Rashi and Ibn Ezra comment on it, both indicating or implying that there's no special significance to this use. Skimming through the Mikraot Gedolot and R' Hirsch (commentaries I have at hand) on this and the other instances, I don't see ...
Rambam (Rotzeach 4:1, 6:10) says that if you intend to kill one person and killed another you don't get exiled. Here you did succeed at killing your target, but the extra death doesn't seem to be worse than one who throws a rock into a crowd who is also exempt (ibid.).
Thanks to the answer of @mbloch, I read the perush of Rav Pearl on Sefer Hamitsvot from Rasag. This is a Machloket Rishonim.
וכתב בחי' הר"ן ז"ל שם שחובת גואל הדם היא שהוא יטעון טענותיו בפני ב"ד על שראוי להמיתו ושאם אין לו גואל הדם שב"ד מעמידין אדם אחר תחת גואל הדם שיטעון בחובת הרוצח. וכדאמרינן בפרק אחד ד"מ (ל"ג ע"ב) חובתי' דמאן חובתי' דגואל הדם. אלמא הוא ...
There is a relevant gemara in Sanhedrin 45b that, if there is no blood redeemer (goel), the court appoints one
As it is taught in a baraita: The verse states: “The blood redeemer
shall slay the murderer when he meets him” (Numbers 35:21). This
mitzva of redeeming the death caused by an unintentional killer falls
on the blood redeemer, a relative of ...
I am assuming that by asking whether or not they were built you mean to ask whether or not they were ever in operation? The actual cities themselves were certainly built. They comprise three cities West of the Jordan (Kedesh, Shechem and Kiriath-arba - Joshua 20:7) and three cities East of the Jordan (Bezer, Ramoth-Gilead and Golan - Deuteronomy 4:43 and ...
Schechem was chosen likely because it was a large city in the left middle third of Eretz Yisrael. Look up a map of the 6 cities. They are spaced out. Just because is was a city of refuge doesn't make it not a city of Efraim, just as Hebron being a one doesn't make it not a city of Judah.
I'm not 100% sure if this is the answer I'm looking for. If someone has a comment to confirm, or a better answer, please feel free. I'm not really sure what he is saying; it sounds more like the place fixes the character traits than the Leviim who are there, but one could be a byproduct of the other.
I found the Shem MiShmuel (the son of the Avnei Nezer), ...
My premise -- the second bullet -- was flawed: it appears that the only people whose death ends the exile are those who had ever served as kohen gadol at the time the exile was decreed. (And not the time of the fatal accident, but the time of the verdict.)
Rambam Murderer & Preservation of Life 7:10--11 explain that everything is determined by the time ...
Ritva (quoted by artscroll) answers that this law applies even if there is an academy in place in the city of refuge, for not every student merits to study successfully under every teacher.
In other words the exilee needs his own teacher to make sure he will continue to learn well.