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19

The Shulchan Aruch rules (OC 124:3) קהל שהתפללו וכולם בקיאים בתפלה, אעפ"כ ירד ש"צ וחוזר להתפלל, כדי לקיים תקנת חכמים A congregation which prayed and all of them were adept at praying, even so the leader goes back and repeats the prayer [aloud] in order to fulfill the enactment of the sages. So the Halacha is clear; the question is why? ShmuelBrin ...


14

The Gra writes (Shenot Eliyahu to Brachot 1:1) that you have to read Shema yourself and you cannot fulfill your obligation by listening to another. (This is not universally agreed to, but see the next point.) As for the blessings, the whole point of having a Chazzan starting from (just before) Barchu is for him to recite the blessings of Keriat Shema out ...


13

I have seen some shuls that actually have people sign a formalized contract not to talk during davening and then post that near the entrance to the shul. I think that whatever the approach, the most successful way would be to get wide-spread buy in from everyone first. Any approach that singles people out, even with halachic basis, will have a hard time ...


13

I once visited the Kemp Mill Synagogue and IF I REMEMBER CORRECTLY this was the deal they had made: the congregartion agreed not to talk at all during services, and in return the Rabbi agreed to give his sermon after all the prayers had ended (ie after mussaf), thus allowing for those who did not want to stay for the sermon to leave. The vast majority of ...


13

From the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch: ואפילו ללמוד אסור בשעה שהשליח צבור חוזר התפלה "And even learning is forbidden when the Chazzan repeats Shemoneh Esrei. From Daily Jewish Law One should not learn Torah during the repetition of the amidah. There are a few concerns: At least 10 men must pay attention to every word of the amidah; All of those ...


10

The Shaalos U'tshuvos Afraksa D'Anya - Siman 30 discusses this question and concludes that each mourner may have his own Minyan.


10

I read in The Making of a Gadol that (according to R' Yaakov Kaminetzky) in Kenesses Yisroel in Slabodka during the week they did a hoiche kedusha for mincha because the institution of chazaras hashatz was for a beis hakenneses where baal habatim davened because of the possible presence of the ignorant, not for a beis medrash of baalei torah. Friday mincha, ...


10

Abudraham, in "Seder Shacharit shel Chol u-Ferushah", says( here, right column, lines 29-38): וכשיגיע ש"ץ ל'מודים' וכורע, כל העם שוחין ואומרין הודאה קטנה המתחלת כמו כן ב'מודים', שאין דרך העבד להודות לרבו ולומר לו 'אדוני אחה' על ידי שליח, אלא כל אדם צריך לקבל בפיו עול מלכות שמים, ואם יקבל על ידי שליח, אינה קבלה גמורה, שיוכל להכחיש ולומר לא ...


9

According to the Rambam (Hilchot Tefilla chap. 9), only the following sections of davening (prayer services) require a Chazzan [over Bar Mitzvah]: Kaddish Birchot Kriat Shema Shemona Esrei, Chazart haShatz, and Kedusha Tachanun, Ashrei and Uva L'Tzion In addition, if a part of davening doesn't require a minyan, it would make sense that a minor could lead ...


9

If you know the fellow publicly flouts shabbos-observance, then we have a problem. (And what does "publicly flout" mean in today's world is another question; Rabbi Joseph Soloveichik is quoted as saying that if he'd be embarrassed to be seen doing it while the rabbi walked by, that's still not "publicly flouting.") Rabbi Shternbuch was asked regarding a ...


9

The Shulchan Aruch (OC 232:1) recommends doing this when השעה דחוקה=the time is pressing, which the Rama (OC 124:2) defines as when the congregation is afraid that if they do the full repetition they won't finish by the end of the allotted time for that prayer. (See Biur Halacha OC 124 sv SheYa'avor who debates if this is Chatzot or Sof Zman Tefillah in ...


9

R. Yitzchak Abadi has told me that it's no problem, at any point in the prayers. There is also no need to make a shehakol if one is drinking the water for the sole purpose of lubricating one's throat. Shehakol is only recited on water when the drinking serves the purpose of quenching one's thirst (see Shulchan Aruch OC 204:7).


9

The Rambam (Tefilah 9:9) and Rashba (Responsum 1:183) write that Maariv's status as reshut is the reason there is no enactment for the leader to repeat the Amida aloud for those who don't know how to pray.


8

The decree is that one must repeat the Amida if there is a minyan praying together. There is no decree, however,that one must look for people that don't know how to pray. Therefore, in the time of the Gemara, one had to do a chazaras hashatz even when there were no ignoramuses in the minyan. So nowadays one must still repeat the Amida even though there ...


8

The rule of thumb Rabbi Moshe Feinstein applies is to not be disruptive. In communities where it is clearly the standard practice that all men wear tallitot, I would think that doing otherwise would be disruptive and/or disrespectful. (And what's the downside, really?) As for what text you yourself use, as long as you're not too loud, generally people aren'...


8

I emailed Rabbi Eliezer Zalmanov (from Chabad.org) about your question. Here's what I said: B''H In most Ashkenazi communities, the custom is that bochurim do not wear a tallis. However, when a bochur is called to the Torah or to the amud, he puts one on anyway, although he makes sure not to cover his head with the tallis so that it's not considered ...


8

The last Mishna Berura in סימן נג [regarding "דין הראוי לירד לפני התבה"] (s'if katan פז) addresses your question. וקורין שליח-צבור חזן, שצריך לראות האיך יקרא, ותרגום "וירא" וחזי And we call the prayer-leader a חזן, because he has to see how to pray properly, and the [Aramaic] translation of "וירא" (to see) is "וחזי" (Translation mine) This ...


8

R Akiva Eiger (responsum #9 (old series), citing the controversial Besamim Rosh #89) argues that women are exempt from Musaf because they are exempt from the half-Shekel tax. R Yitzchak Elchanan Spektor (Beit Yitzchak OC #20) rejected this argument because then not only women, but even Kohanim, Leviyim and those under 20 would also be exempt, which he ...


8

Siman 53 in Orach Chaim is rather long, and deals at length with the qualifications and disqualifications of a shaliach tzibur. You may wish to read through the entire siman. Since it appears from your question that you are particularly interested in disqualifications relating to sins the person may have committed, the following statement of R. Moshe ...


7

It's not unique. It's because it's the last blessing in a series. The same is true for bone (b'rachamav) Y'rushalayim after a meal and the final b'racha of Halel and p'suke d'zimra. Specifically, SA OC 215:1 has that we say amen to our own b'racha in each of these cases even without hearing someone else simultaneously, and I believe S'faradim follow this ...


7

Levush (Orach Chaim 488:1) says that we start with הא-ל בתעצומות on Yom Tov, because all of them are "in remembrance of the Exodus from Egypt," when Hashem displayed His mighty power. He also says (ibid. 584:1) that we start with המלך on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur (and change the wording to המלך יושב, "the King is sitting"), because these are the times ...


7

I think the source of this minhag is in the Talmud (TB Rosh Hashana 17b): ויעבור ה' על פניו ויקרא א"ר יוחנן אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו מלמד שנתעטף הקב"ה כשליח צבור והראה לו למשה סדר תפלה אמר לו כל זמן שישראל חוטאין יעשו לפני כסדר הזה ואני מוחל להם (Roughly: "Hashem passed before him, and He called" (Shmot 34:6): Said R' Yochanan: if this scripture were ...


7

The Mishna was referring to specific sects at the time. If we had solid reason to believe today that a person's dress indicated serious rifts with mainstream Jewish theology, we'd think twice about having them lead prayers (and, as was done then, apply poetic license in how to recite the texts). I don't really see that as an issue now.


7

This halacha is brought in Shulchan Aruch 53:16 Here are some clarifications: 1) A regular/permanent Shliach Tzibur does not need to refuse. (On the contrary, if a regular Shliach Tzibur refuses he shows that it is beneath his dignity to daven until the congregation pleads with him [see Beit Yosef and Shulchan Aruch Harav 53:19]) 2) If requested by an '...


7

I was talking to a friend of mine today about this question and he told me that recently he was in a Shul and no one wanted to Daven Musaf for the Amud. The Gabai has already Davened Shacharis and read the Kriyas HaTorah. So the Gabai made a loud announcement "Good Shabbos - Thanks for all of you joining with our Minyan. I am leaving now and will come back ...


7

I have no source other than my teachers(' Mesorah?), but I was taught, and I believe, that it is proper for the חזן to wait until after the completion of the קדיש. It seems to me that, rather than waiting for praise, he is preventing distraction, and his presence and staid stance at the עמוד help to maintain the decorum through the last words of the קדיש.


7

Yes, the Chazzan must say that line out loud. In fact, as part of his job as Chazzan, he should really recite all the blessings surrounding the recitation of Shema, in the morning and the evening, aloud in order to fulfill anyone's obligation. However, R Yosef Eliyahu Henkin writes that at the very least he must recite the closing of each blessing, a small ...


7

A Chazzan's job is to recite the Shema Blessings and Amida sections aloud for the congregation to fulfill their obligation with. (For the Amida, those who know how to pray themselves must also do so individually seemingly since prayer is inherently personal.) Congregations who choose to utilize a "Chazzan" during Pesukei Dizimra are essentially just using a ...


6

Yes, Taame Haminhagim 681 says (with my own translation): טעם שהש״ץ מתעטף בציצית כשמשכימין לסליחות אע״פ שאין זמן ציצית, משום דאיתא, הקב״ה נתעטף בציצית כש״ץ והרגיל למרע״ה י״ג מדות, אלמא כשאומר י״ג מדות יתעטף בציצית The reason the shatz (leader) wraps himself in tzitzis when we arise early for s'lichos although it's not yet the hour for tzitzis is that ...


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