14

The Gra writes (Shenot Eliyahu to Brachot 1:1) that you have to read Shema yourself and you cannot fulfill your obligation by listening to another. (This is not universally agreed to, but see the next point.) As for the blessings, the whole point of having a Chazzan starting from (just before) Barchu is for him to recite the blessings of Keriat Shema out ...


10

Abudraham, in "Seder Shacharit shel Chol u-Ferushah", says( here, right column, lines 29-38): וכשיגיע ש"ץ ל'מודים' וכורע, כל העם שוחין ואומרין הודאה קטנה המתחלת כמו כן ב'מודים', שאין דרך העבד להודות לרבו ולומר לו 'אדוני אחה' על ידי שליח, אלא כל אדם צריך לקבל בפיו עול מלכות שמים, ואם יקבל על ידי שליח, אינה קבלה גמורה, שיוכל להכחיש ולומר לא ...


9

R. Yitzchak Abadi has told me that it's no problem, at any point in the prayers. There is also no need to make a shehakol if one is drinking the water for the sole purpose of lubricating one's throat. Shehakol is only recited on water when the drinking serves the purpose of quenching one's thirst (see Shulchan Aruch OC 204:7).


9

The rule of thumb Rabbi Moshe Feinstein applies is to not be disruptive. In communities where it is clearly the standard practice that all men wear tallitot, I would think that doing otherwise would be disruptive and/or disrespectful. (And what's the downside, really?) As for what text you yourself use, as long as you're not too loud, generally people aren'...


9

The Rambam (Tefilah 9:9) and Rashba (Responsum 1:183) write that Maariv's status as reshut is the reason there is no enactment for the leader to repeat the Amida aloud for those who don't know how to pray.


8

I emailed Rabbi Eliezer Zalmanov (from Chabad.org) about your question. Here's what I said: B''H In most Ashkenazi communities, the custom is that bochurim do not wear a tallis. However, when a bochur is called to the Torah or to the amud, he puts one on anyway, although he makes sure not to cover his head with the tallis so that it's not considered an ...


8

The last Mishna Berura in סימן נג [regarding "דין הראוי לירד לפני התבה"] (s'if katan פז) addresses your question. וקורין שליח-צבור חזן, שצריך לראות האיך יקרא, ותרגום "וירא" וחזי And we call the prayer-leader a חזן, because he has to see how to pray properly, and the [Aramaic] translation of "וירא" (to see) is "וחזי" (Translation mine) This ...


8

A Chazzan's job is to recite the Shema Blessings and Amida sections aloud for the congregation to fulfill their obligation with. (For the Amida, those who know how to pray themselves must also do so individually seemingly since prayer is inherently personal.) Congregations who choose to utilize a "Chazzan" during Pesukei Dizimra are essentially just using a ...


8

R Akiva Eiger (responsum #9 (old series), citing the controversial Besamim Rosh #89) argues that women are exempt from Musaf because they are exempt from the half-Shekel tax. R Yitzchak Elchanan Spektor (Beit Yitzchak OC #20) rejected this argument because then not only women, but even Kohanim, Leviyim and those under 20 would also be exempt, which he ...


8

Siman 53 in Orach Chaim is rather long, and deals at length with the qualifications and disqualifications of a shaliach tzibur. You may wish to read through the entire siman. Since it appears from your question that you are particularly interested in disqualifications relating to sins the person may have committed, the following statement of R. Moshe ...


7

This halacha is brought in Shulchan Aruch 53:16 Here are some clarifications: 1) A regular/permanent Shliach Tzibur does not need to refuse. (On the contrary, if a regular Shliach Tzibur refuses he shows that it is beneath his dignity to daven until the congregation pleads with him [see Beit Yosef and Shulchan Aruch Harav 53:19]) 2) If requested by an '...


7

I was talking to a friend of mine today about this question and he told me that recently he was in a Shul and no one wanted to Daven Musaf for the Amud. The Gabai has already Davened Shacharis and read the Kriyas HaTorah. So the Gabai made a loud announcement "Good Shabbos - Thanks for all of you joining with our Minyan. I am leaving now and will come back ...


7

I have no source other than my teachers(' Mesorah?), but I was taught, and I believe, that it is proper for the חזן to wait until after the completion of the קדיש. It seems to me that, rather than waiting for praise, he is preventing distraction, and his presence and staid stance at the עמוד help to maintain the decorum through the last words of the קדיש.


7

The Rambam (Tefillah 14:8) says explicitly it's the Chazzan who calls. Tosfot (Berachot 34a) quote Rabbeinu Tam who says that the Chazzan cannot call out "Kohanim" as it is a Hefsek. He proves this from the Sifri (Naso 39) which says Kohanim is said by the "Chazzan" (in context "Chazzan" there is like what we call "Gabbai"), and from the Talmud in Sotah (...


7

Yes, the Chazzan must say that line out loud. In fact, as part of his job as Chazzan, he should really recite all the blessings surrounding the recitation of Shema, in the morning and the evening, aloud in order to fulfill anyone's obligation. However, R Yosef Eliyahu Henkin writes that at the very least he must recite the closing of each blessing, a small ...


6

The Rambam writes (Tefillah 8:1) תפילת הציבור, נשמעת תמיד; ואפילו היו בהן חטאים, אין הקדוש ברוך הוא מואס תפילתן של רבים. לפיכך צריך אדם לשתף עצמו עם הציבור, ולא יתפלל יחידי, כל זמן שיכול להתפלל בציבור...‏ The prayer of the community is always heard, even if there were sinners among them, for God refuses to reject the prayer of many. Therefore one ...


6

I would arrange for a chazan ahead of time, not right before davening. You probably know who the good chazanim are, so simply ask them a few days in advance and make a schedule (for yourself).


6

One who errs in this regard must start over from the beginning (Shulchan Aruch, OC 582:1). The Beit Yosef implies that this applies to a sh'liach tzibbur, as well (OC 582:2). The Sha'arei T'shuvah, quoting the Z'kan Aharon (§ 6), rules explicitly that the sh'liach tzibbur must return to the beginning, and must repeat k'dushah, as well (OC 582:1).


6

I asked this question just this week to HaRav Zundel Kroizer. I asked if I could fly to EY knowing I would miss minyanim and kadeshim during the flight, but improve my learning here. He said the zchus of learning was far greater.


6

Rav Moshe Feinstein (Igrot Moshe YD 4:61:4) ruled they should not split up because of BeRov Am, and all the more so in a case where the extra group would not be in a Shul or even a room without a Torah scroll. Rav Chaim Kanievsky (Gam Ani Odekha (Shonim) 3:34) says it is better in your situation not to split up into multiple Minyanim. Rav Yehuda Herzl ...


6

Nitei Gavriel Aveilus 56-58 discusses the different Minhagim. This is my understanding of what he says. An Aveil should not Daven for the Amud on Shabbos, Yom Tov, and the high holy days. Exceptions are as follows. If there is no one who can Daven as good as the Aveil the Aveil may Daven during these days. In addition if the Aveil is the regular Chazan on ...


6

If the Rabbi of a congregation forgot to count one day and he usually makes the bracha out loud, he may continue to count with a bracha; by not continuing to count he will cause a disgrace for Torah and is a disgrace for the members of the congregation. (Shevet Ha'Levi 3:96, 4:157 note to ch 96) The heter is for a Rabbi because of his public position, not ...


6

In describing the synagogues of Bavel in the Twelfth Century, R. Petachia of Ratisbon wrote as follows: בחולו של מועד אומרים המזמורים בכלי שיר On the half-holidays they recite the psalms to the accompaniment of musical instruments, (Travels of Rabbi Petachia of Ratisbon p. 46-47) It seems like the rabbinic authorities there allowed this, and no objection ...


6

In Shulchan Aruch siman 123 siff 5 the Mechaber tells us the Sha'tz does not need to take 3 steps back after his repetition aloud of the Shmoneh Esrei. The Mishna Berurah 18 explains this is because he relies on the three steps he takes back after Uvah Litzion, and even though there might be Krias Hatorah and Hallel and Avinu Malkeinu, it is not a hefsek (...


6

I witnessed the Rosh Yeshiva of Ner Israel several times pick up a sefer and learn when the Chazzan would choose a slow tune for Mimkomcha of the Shabbos Shacharis Kedusha. I don't see piyutim being any different than the sections between the primary lines of Kedusha, and certainly not any more stringent. The Rosh Yeshiva never learned or did anything ...


6

Rama discusses a similar situation in ShA OC 54:3 where, after reciting Yishtabach, the congregation halted the prayer service for specific Mitzva/communal needs. He recommends in that case for the Chazzan to recite "some verses from Pesukei Dizimra" and say Kaddish "on them". (It seems to me that his specification of "from Pesukei Dizimra" is lav davka and ...


6

Seems that the answer is: Yes, one may do so a priori. See the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch in סימן כו - דיני קדיש יתום: סעיף יד: מִי שֶׁיָּכוֹל וְרָאוּי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, יִתְפַּלֵּל, וּמוֹעִיל יוֹתֵר מִקַּדִּישׁ יָתוֹם, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְקַן אֶלָּא לַקְטַנִּים. וּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִתְפַּלֵּל כָּל הַתְּפִלָּה, יִתְפַּלֵּל מִן אַשְׁרֵי וּבָא ...


6

This doesn't really answer your question definitively at all, but I thought it might interest you. I was reading through some of the autobiographical essays of R. Isaac David Essrig (1893-1976), who was a well-respected rabbi (although he wouldn't be considered a "gadol") originally from Israel but who moved during WW1 to America. For about seven ...


6

You ask why we historically needed a shali'ach tzibur, when did they begin and why do we still need today? R Ari Jacobson provides a first summary according to two different approaches Back in the days when printed texts were not yet accessible, many Jews didn’t own siddurim and sefarim as we do today. Although there was a small segment of very ...


6

Rule #1: Don't fight about it. First, one should never get into fights with others to do Mitzvot (Mishna Berura 53 sk 65). Regarding our case, the Chatam Sofer (YD 345) writes that if you deserve a certain spot and someone else takes it, he hasn't gained anything and you haven't lost anything (ie. you get the "credit" anyway). Plus fighting another Jew ...


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