12

This exact question was asked by the Tosafist R. Yehuda Ben Elazar in his commentary to Genesis 38:10: וא"ת למה נענשו ער ואונן והלא לא היו אלא בני ח' שנה כדאי' בסדר עולם ואמרי' בית דין של מעלה אין מענישין עד כ' שנה ותירץ ר' יהודה החסיד דאין הדבר תלוי אלא בדעת ובמחשבה כי יש פחות מי"ג שנה ערום בדעת ובמחשבה לרעה או לטובה Why were Er and Onan punished? ...


7

Rambam writes in Hilchot Melachim uMilchamoteihem 9:14 that non-Jews are commanded to establish courts to try those that transgress the seven Noachide commandments (which include murder). A non-Jew can be convicted on the basis of a single witness’ testimony, and there is no requirement to warn him first. The punishment for transgressing any of the Noachide ...


7

This is addressed by Sanhedrin 80b. It’s a dispute to begin with whether the particular form of death needs to be specified in the warning: תניא ושאר חייבי מיתות שבתורה אין ממיתין אותן אלא בעדה ועדים והתראה ועד שיודיעוהו שהוא חייב מיתת ב"ד רבי יהודה אומר עד שיודיעוהו באיזה מיתה הוא נהרג We taught in a Braisa: For all others that make liable to death ...


6

Even before the Gemara, the Mishna on Bava Kamma 83b makes it clear : One who injures another becomes liable for five things: damages, pain, medical expenses, incapacitation, and mental anguish. -Damages: If he put out his eye, cut off his arm or broke his leg, the injured person is considered as if he were a slave being sold in the market ...


6

In Kesubos 33a Rava says that warning has to be done toch kedei dibbur (within several seconds) so that we know the perpetrator did not forget the warning and act erroneously: אמר רבא תדע ניתרי בהו אימת ניתרי בהו מעיקרא אמרי אישתלין Rashi and Yad Rema in Sanhedrin 40b quote this reason as well: המית בתוך כדי דיבור כדי שאילת שלום להתראה דאי לאחר כדי ...


5

In Kallah Rabasi 4:6 it mentions the fact that Er and Onan were punished by heavenly court, followed by the fact that children can reach lofty levels. The Nachlas Yaakov, a commentary printed on the side there in the Gemara, writes that the connection between the two points of the Brasisa, is to answer your question. The reason why these children were ...


5

The Mishna in Sanhedrin 9:4 says that one can be obligated in a more severe death penalty for a second offence that occurred after being sentenced to a less severe death penalty for a different action. מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בִּשְׁתֵּי מִיתוֹת בֵּית דִּין, נִדּוֹן בַּחֲמוּרָה. עָבַר עֲבֵרָה שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בָּהּ שְׁתֵּי מִיתוֹת, נִדּוֹן בַּחֲמוּרָה. רַבִּי ...


5

The Gemara on Bava Kama 83b: אמאי (שמות כא, כד) עין תחת עין אמר רחמנא אימא עין ממש לא סלקא דעתך דתניא יכול סימא את עינו מסמא את עינו קטע את ידו מקטע את ידו שיבר את רגלו משבר את רגלו ת"ל (ויקרא כד, כא) מכה אדם ומכה בהמה מה מכה בהמה לתשלומין אף מכה אדם לתשלומין (My translation with help from steinzaltz): Why (does it say) “An eye for an eye”? The Torah ...


4

You are interpreting the Mishna incorrectly. As the Bartenua already teaches us: ואפילו היו מאה. כתות שהעידו זו אחר זו בעדות אחת וכת אחת הזימה את כולן, כולן יהרגו:‏ Even if there were a hundred. pairs that testified one after the other with one testimony and one pair zommemizes all of them, all of them are killed. The Rambam learns the Mishna ...


3

Rambam, הלכות סנהדרין פרק י"ג: Once the verdict [of death] has been rendered, [the convicted] is executed without delay on the same day. There is very little time between the verdict and execution, there is not much time for Mitzos. Rambam doesn't mention whether he does וידוי or קריאת שמע before death. In chapter 13:2, Rambam adds that one who confesses ...


3

This question was asked by many authorities. For example, the Chacham Tzvi § 49. He says that there are those that suggest it was because of their intellectual maturity. Even though they were minors, they were mentally responsible for their actions like an adult. The Dovev Mesharim ed. of the Chacham Tzvi points to the Sefer Chassidim (Makitzei Nirdamim ed.,...


3

The Torah requires for misas Beis din (death penalty) we have to be 100% sure that the perpetrator knew what he was doing and that he didn't forget the warning/didn't know what he was doing was bad, hence one needs warning תוך כדי דיבור (within the time of a greeting to ones teacher) to warn the guy prior to his sin, see Kesubos 33a. Otherwise they'd kill ...


3

This is not a halachic source, but Josephus brings down in his Antiquities that Herod (An Edomite, so not Jewish, but possibly technically a גר תושב) was tried and sentenced to death before a "Sanhedrin" for killing Jews without a trial. I use "Sanhedrin" in quotes, because by this time there was a lot of corruption in government (not to mention a very ...


3

Rashi and Rav Hirsch explain that Hashem had already commanded that he was subject to the death penalty, but they did not yet know the precise manner of the punishment. Shlach Lecha 15:34 They put him under guard, since it was not specified what was to be done to him. Rashi since it was not specified what was to be done to him: With which method he ...


2

To start off, there is actually a third case where the Torah says מישראל rather than מקרבך. In Devarim 19:13, in reference to a murderer, the Torah says ובערת דם הנקי מישראל. In his commentary to 22:22, R. Meir Simcha of Dvinsk explains why the Torah switches between מקרבך and מישראל. He states that when the Torah says to remove evil "from your midst" that ...


2

The Chasam Sofer Kovetz Teshuvos 85 says that even though they did not know whether the Mekalel was Chayav Misa or not, they still warned him that he will die with Sekila which is the most severe death according to Rabanan just in case, and going like the opinion Sanhedrin 80b מותרה לדבר חמור הוי מותרה לדבר קל, they could subsequently have given the Mekallel ...


2

We can account for the abolition of the death penalty based on the following Talmudic passage: Sanhedrin 41a ותניא ארבעים שנה קודם חורבן הבית גלתה סנהדרי וישבה לה בחנות ואמר ר' יצחק בר אבודימי לומר שלא דנו דיני קנסות דיני קנסות ס"ד אלא שלא דנו דיני נפשות And it has also been taught: Forty years before the destruction of the Temple, the Sanhedrin ...


2

I think the answer can come from a fundamental appreciation of the genre of the Talmudic derasha. The purpose was homiletic, to exhort the masses and inspire them, rather than to be a valid kal vachomer. Your question indeed comes out of the very text of the gemara in Arachin תניא א"ר אלעזר בן פרטא בוא וראה כמה גדול כח של לשון הרע מנלן ממרגלים ומה המוציא ...


1

Toch K'dei dibbur is the definition of "immediate", and all activity within toch kdei dibbur is considered simultaneous. Anything which happens after this time is grouped together as "at a later time". We do not have any "medium-term" time frame. Therefore, if the act was within Toch Kdei Dibbur, it was "at the same time/immediate" to the warning, while if ...


1

Based on Rashi ad. loc., there is a debate whether נפש תחת נפש, "life for life" in that verse is to be taken literally, and the assailant/murderer is liable for capital punishment, or if that phrase, too, is figurative, like the phrases in v. 24-25, and the defendant merely liable for monetary compensation. If the latter, the defendant pays the full (market)...


1

Great question. The rationale for the changes in the laws of Torah in Reform Judaism can be found by consulting 'REFORM JUDAISM FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE REFORM JEW' in Jewish Encyclopedia (online), where it is stated: 'The Law, often of non-Jewish origin, is the product of time, and is subject to growth and change in the course of time. . . . The laws ...


1

Rambam Edus 4, 1: היה זה המתרה בו רואה העדים והעדים רואין אותו אף על פי שאין רואין זה את זה המתרה מצרפן היו If a person who administered the warning sees [each one of] the witnesses and the witnesses see him [but the witnesses don't see each other], because of the [other] person administering the warning, their testimony is combined even though they ...


1

Meseches Megillah (daf 22b) says that an Aliya, or a Torah reading, is added every time we add something. For example: from weekdays to Rosh Chodesh, we add mussaf, therefore Rosh Chodesh has 4 Aliya’s while weekdays only have 3. The Gemara then goes on to say: ביום הכיפורים דענוש כרת שישה, שבת דאיכא איסור סקילה שבעה.- on Yom Kippur there are six, because ...


1

Speaking on an entirely different issue, Rav Moshe Feinstein (Shu"t Igros Moshe (Y"D 4, end 2) argued that we are in no position to question the piety of previous generations. In the example you cite, while one could argue the fear of punishment from the Sanhedrin (as opposed to punishment directly from Shamayim) had an effect on their practice, they were ...


1

My first answer was philosophical, this one is more Halachic. After spending a couple of hours in our Kolel researching the subject we've come up with some findings: 1. Learning straight from the Torah: I couldn't find a clear view of Poskim on the subject (if Rambam does not deal with that - nobody does), but there's a consensus of the Torah commentators ...


1

Fortunately someone once pointed me to a Meshech Chochma, seen here, who addresses the same observation you had in Ki Seitzei 22,22. The Meshech Chachma has an intricate approach seen below, where he explains that the phrase ובערת הרע מישראל is coming to teach us that Beis Din does not kill a Ger Toshav for this sin. The instances where the phrase מקרבך ...


1

This is addressed by Rashi's comments to Sanhedrin 72b. Rashi there says: לפקח עליו את הגל - אם כשהיה חותר נפל עליו (את) הגל מפקחין עליו היכא דלא בא על עסקי נפשות אבל אם בא על עסקי נפשות כיון דניתן להרגו בלא התראה גברא קטילא הוא משעת (סתירה): If when the [ba bamachteres] was digging, the pile of stones fell on him, we clear it off him [on Shabbos] if he ...


1

R. Abraham Vitirbo raises a variation of this question at the end of the Fifth Essay of Sefer Emunat Chachamim. He mentions that many people are confused because the Mishnah (Avot 2:6) states that Hillel saw a skull floating in the water and said "you were killed because you killed". These people thus wonder why Hevel was killed if he never killed anyone. R....


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