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7

This is addressed by Sanhedrin 80b. It’s a dispute to begin with whether the particular form of death needs to be specified in the warning: תניא ושאר חייבי מיתות שבתורה אין ממיתין אותן אלא בעדה ועדים והתראה ועד שיודיעוהו שהוא חייב מיתת ב"ד רבי יהודה אומר עד שיודיעוהו באיזה מיתה הוא נהרג We taught in a Braisa: For all others that make liable to death ...


7

Rambam writes in Hilchot Melachim uMilchamoteihem 9:14 that non-Jews are commanded to establish courts to try those that transgress the seven Noachide commandments (which include murder). A non-Jew can be convicted on the basis of a single witness’ testimony, and there is no requirement to warn him first. The punishment for transgressing any of the Noachide ...


6

We see from the following Gemora, that between 60 and 80 if someone dies suddenly - [without being sick for three days - תוספות שבת כה. ד"ה וכרת], it is somewhat of a Kares. Moed Katan 28a: רב יוסף כי הוה בר שיתין עבד להו יומא טבא לרבנן אמר נפקי לי מכרת א"ל אביי נהי דנפק ליה מר מכרת דשני מכרת דיומי מי נפיק מר א"ל נקוט לך מיהא פלגא בידך The Gemara ...


6

Even before the Gemara, the Mishna on Bava Kamma 83b makes it clear : One who injures another becomes liable for five things: damages, pain, medical expenses, incapacitation, and mental anguish. -Damages: If he put out his eye, cut off his arm or broke his leg, the injured person is considered as if he were a slave being sold in the market ...


5

The Gemara on Bava Kama 83b: אמאי (שמות כא, כד) עין תחת עין אמר רחמנא אימא עין ממש לא סלקא דעתך דתניא יכול סימא את עינו מסמא את עינו קטע את ידו מקטע את ידו שיבר את רגלו משבר את רגלו ת"ל (ויקרא כד, כא) מכה אדם ומכה בהמה מה מכה בהמה לתשלומין אף מכה אדם לתשלומין (My translation with help from steinzaltz): Why (does it say) “An eye for an eye”? The Torah ...


4

When is one absolved from paying in event of another punishment? Hope this setup makes it easy. This is a summary of אלו נערות Kesubos chapter 3 for those doing Daf Hayomi. These two punishments have to be incurred simultaneously e.g launching an arrow 4 amos (cubits) on Shabbos in the reshus harabim (public domain) and tearing clothes on its path (Kesubos ...


4

You are interpreting the Mishna incorrectly. As the Bartenua already teaches us: ואפילו היו מאה. כתות שהעידו זו אחר זו בעדות אחת וכת אחת הזימה את כולן, כולן יהרגו:‏ Even if there were a hundred. pairs that testified one after the other with one testimony and one pair zommemizes all of them, all of them are killed. The Rambam learns the Mishna ...


3

The Torah requires for misas Beis din (death penalty) we have to be 100% sure that the perpetrator knew what he was doing and that he didn't forget the warning/didn't know what he was doing was bad, hence one needs warning תוך כדי דיבור (within the time of a greeting to ones teacher) to warn the guy prior to his sin, see Kesubos 33a. Otherwise they'd kill ...


3

This is not a halachic source, but Josephus brings down in his Antiquities that Herod (An Edomite, so not Jewish, but possibly technically a גר תושב) was tried and sentenced to death before a "Sanhedrin" for killing Jews without a trial. I use "Sanhedrin" in quotes, because by this time there was a lot of corruption in government (not to mention a very ...


3

Rashi and Rav Hirsch explain that Hashem had already commanded that he was subject to the death penalty, but they did not yet know the precise manner of the punishment. Shlach Lecha 15:34 They put him under guard, since it was not specified what was to be done to him. Rashi since it was not specified what was to be done to him: With which method he ...


2

To start off, there is actually a third case where the Torah says מישראל rather than מקרבך. In Devarim 19:13, in reference to a murderer, the Torah says ובערת דם הנקי מישראל. In his commentary to 22:22, R. Meir Simcha of Dvinsk explains why the Torah switches between מקרבך and מישראל. He states that when the Torah says to remove evil "from your midst" that ...


2

The Chasam Sofer Kovetz Teshuvos 85 says that even though they did not know whether the Mekalel was Chayav Misa or not, they still warned him that he will die with Sekila which is the most severe death according to Rabanan just in case, and going like the opinion Sanhedrin 80b מותרה לדבר חמור הוי מותרה לדבר קל, they could subsequently have given the Mekallel ...


2

We can account for the abolition of the death penalty based on the following Talmudic passage: Sanhedrin 41a ותניא ארבעים שנה קודם חורבן הבית גלתה סנהדרי וישבה לה בחנות ואמר ר' יצחק בר אבודימי לומר שלא דנו דיני קנסות דיני קנסות ס"ד אלא שלא דנו דיני נפשות And it has also been taught: Forty years before the destruction of the Temple, the Sanhedrin ...


1

Based on Rashi ad. loc., there is a debate whether נפש תחת נפש, "life for life" in that verse is to be taken literally, and the assailant/murderer is liable for capital punishment, or if that phrase, too, is figurative, like the phrases in v. 24-25, and the defendant merely liable for monetary compensation. If the latter, the defendant pays the full (market)...


1

Great question. The rationale for the changes in the laws of Torah in Reform Judaism can be found by consulting 'REFORM JUDAISM FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE REFORM JEW' in Jewish Encyclopedia (online), where it is stated: 'The Law, often of non-Jewish origin, is the product of time, and is subject to growth and change in the course of time. . . . The laws ...


1

Rambam Edus 4, 1: היה זה המתרה בו רואה העדים והעדים רואין אותו אף על פי שאין רואין זה את זה המתרה מצרפן היו If a person who administered the warning sees [each one of] the witnesses and the witnesses see him [but the witnesses don't see each other], because of the [other] person administering the warning, their testimony is combined even though they ...


1

Meseches Megillah (daf 22b) says that an Aliya, or a Torah reading, is added every time we add something. For example: from weekdays to Rosh Chodesh, we add mussaf, therefore Rosh Chodesh has 4 Aliya’s while weekdays only have 3. The Gemara then goes on to say: ביום הכיפורים דענוש כרת שישה, שבת דאיכא איסור סקילה שבעה.- on Yom Kippur there are six, because ...


1

Fortunately someone once pointed me to a Meshech Chochma, seen here, who addresses the same observation you had in Ki Seitzei 22,22. The Meshech Chachma has an intricate approach seen below, where he explains that the phrase ובערת הרע מישראל is coming to teach us that Beis Din does not kill a Ger Toshav for this sin. The instances where the phrase מקרבך ...


1

Speaking on an entirely different issue, Rav Moshe Feinstein (Shu"t Igros Moshe (Y"D 4, end 2) argued that we are in no position to question the piety of previous generations. In the example you cite, while one could argue the fear of punishment from the Sanhedrin (as opposed to punishment directly from Shamayim) had an effect on their practice, they were ...


1

My first answer was philosophical, this one is more Halachic. After spending a couple of hours in our Kolel researching the subject we've come up with some findings: 1. Learning straight from the Torah: I couldn't find a clear view of Poskim on the subject (if Rambam does not deal with that - nobody does), but there's a consensus of the Torah commentators ...


1

This is addressed by Rashi's comments to Sanhedrin 72b. Rashi there says: לפקח עליו את הגל - אם כשהיה חותר נפל עליו (את) הגל מפקחין עליו היכא דלא בא על עסקי נפשות אבל אם בא על עסקי נפשות כיון דניתן להרגו בלא התראה גברא קטילא הוא משעת (סתירה): If when the [ba bamachteres] was digging, the pile of stones fell on him, we clear it off him [on Shabbos] if he ...


1

R. Abraham Vitirbo raises a variation of this question at the end of the Fifth Essay of Sefer Emunat Chachamim. He mentions that many people are confused because the Mishnah (Avot 2:6) states that Hillel saw a skull floating in the water and said "you were killed because you killed". These people thus wonder why Hevel was killed if he never killed anyone. R....


1

As I wrote here: This question was raised by the medieval commentator Gersonides. He argues that Aaron was actually trying to prevent the idolatry, and did everything in his power to delay it as much as possible, hoping that Moses would return in the interim and sort things out. Here is the ESV translation of the relevant passage in Chapter 32: 1 When ...


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