19

Rabbi Chaim Clorfene writes in his popular (and heavily annotated) book, The Path of the Righteous Gentile (p. 42), that B'nei Noach should learn parts of the Torah relevant to their service of God, as well as to the Torah's view on God. He adds that this can be broadly applied, as many areas of Torah "can bring one to greater knowledge concerning the ...


18

About your second question, defending himself by killing his executioners: Mishneh Lemelech (Hil. Rotze'ach Ushemiras Nefesh 1:15) implies that no. He says that in cases where extrajudicial killing is permitted (e.g., a goel hadam pursuing a murderer, or a zealot attempting to kill a Jew consorting with a gentile woman), then the intended victim may indeed ...


16

Good question. Or HaChaim (Bamidbar 25:8) asks the same question, and answers that she had the דין of the animal involved in bestiality -- "ואת הבהמה תהרוגו," "and you shall kill the animal" (Vayikra 20:15). וידקר את שניהם וגו'. קשה בשלמא דקירת איש ישראל כמשפט ההלכה, שקנאים פוגעים בו, אבל האשה אינה חייבת מיתה ואינה מצווה, ואם על חששת היותה אשת איש לא ...


13

To answer your more specific question: no, a Gentile who studies Torah in a forbidden way is still not stoned. The Rambam rules (Milchamot 10:9 and English) ואם עסק בתורה, או שבת, או חידש דבר--מכין אותו ועונשין אותו, ומודיעין אותו שהוא חייב מיתה על זה; אבל אינו נהרג.‏ If a gentile studies the Torah, makes a Sabbath, or creates a religious practice, ...


13

If she confesses she won't be put to death by Beis Din since you need 2 witnesses for that. And if there are 2 witnesses then she won't be tested by the sota water, hence there are not 2 witnesses. We don't execute a person based on his own testimony (Rambam, Hilkhot Sanhedrin 18:6; see also Yevamot 25b), and we don't include an admission with another ...


12

See Rambam Sanhedrin 15:10-13 for those obligated in the court-imposed death penalties and ibid 19:1-3 for those obligated in Karet or Mitah Bidei Shamayim.


12

The death penalty is not carried out nowadays due to the fact that we no longer have a standing Temple nor do we have an actual Sanhedrin with semikhah. (Semikhah is an unbroken chain of Rabbinic ordination going back to Moses our Teacher.) But even when we did have these things, the Mishnah tells us that the death penalty was rarely carried out - so ...


12

This exact question was asked by the Tosafist R. Yehuda Ben Elazar in his commentary to Genesis 38:10: וא"ת למה נענשו ער ואונן והלא לא היו אלא בני ח' שנה כדאי' בסדר עולם ואמרי' בית דין של מעלה אין מענישין עד כ' שנה ותירץ ר' יהודה החסיד דאין הדבר תלוי אלא בדעת ובמחשבה כי יש פחות מי"ג שנה ערום בדעת ובמחשבה לרעה או לטובה Why were Er and Onan punished? ...


11

This blessing was instituted in the days of Raban Gamliel when the Jewish heretics (saducees, etc.) of the time posed a direct threat to the nation, the blessing was instituted as an anti-missionary move. http://www.ou.org/torah/taryag/shemoneh_esrei_12


10

As stated above, the death penalty was exceedingly rare. Just regarding the burning part, fascinatingly the Talmud says that to burn someone at the stake is a violation of "love your fellow like yourself." Instead, a death sentence of "burning" is carried out by pouring molten lead down their throat. Still not fun, but it's seen as I believe less painful (...


9

First, to clarify, people are not executed completely naked (as noted by HodofHod). There are two concerns involved here: 1.) Desiring a particular woman, which may lead to promiscuous behavior. 2.) Gazing at a woman with intent to derive pleasure. In this scenario, concern #1 does not apply because she is being executed. Concern #2 could theoretically be ...


9

According to this article, 40 years before the destruction of the Temple: Instructive though this is, it is merely an academic discussion, the right of imposing capital punishment having been taken from the Sanhedrin by the Romans a century before, "40 years before the Destruction of the Temple" (Sanh. 41a; TJ, Sanh. 1:18a). The rabbis agreed that with ...


9

Was Stoning Still Officially Practiced? As the previous answers have already said, no, it appears that stoning was abolished around the time of Jesus' birth. Did It Still Happen Anyway? Sometimes, but the best attested case took place under special circumstances. The historian Josephus writes of an instance in which stonings occurred, probably around the ...


9

The Mishna in Sanhedrin 9:4 says that one can be obligated in a more severe death penalty for a second offence that occurred after being sentenced to a less severe death penalty for a different action. מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בִּשְׁתֵּי מִיתוֹת בֵּית דִּין, נִדּוֹן בַּחֲמוּרָה. עָבַר עֲבֵרָה שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בָּהּ שְׁתֵּי מִיתוֹת, נִדּוֹן בַּחֲמוּרָה. רַבִּי ...


8

Chemdas Yisroel (R' Meir Dan Plozky Zatzal) 42 says that in such a case the convert would not be executed.


8

Agreed that a person found guilty should accept their sentence; here's a different source. There are several different Midrashic explanations to Deuteronomy 25:11-12, involving a woman trying to save her husband. Several say the phrase to save her husband from his fellow excludes either saving him from an agent of the courts (carrying out the death penalty),...


8

Bamidbar 27:3, quoting Tz'lofchad's daughters, who were seeking land in Israel: אָבִינוּ מֵת בַּמִּדְבָּר וְהוּא לֹא הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַנּוֹעָדִים עַל ה׳ בַּעֲדַת קֹרַח כִּי בְחֶטְאוֹ מֵת…‏ Our father died in the desert; he was not among the group who met against God in the group of Korach, but died for his own sin… The Sifre (ad loc.) ...


8

Sanhedrin 43a: אמר רב חסדא היוצא ליהרג משקין אותו קורט של לבונה בכוס של יין כדי שתטרף דעתו שנאמר (משלי לא) תנו שכר לאובד ויין למרי נפש Said Rav Chisda: One being taken out to be executed, we give him a drink of a dose of frankincense dissolved in a cup of wine, to discombobulate his mind. As the verse (Proverbs 31) says, "give strong drink to one who ...


8

You are likely thinking of Rashi to Shemot 21:13: והא-להים אנה לידו: ולמה תצא זאת מלפניו, הוא שאמר דוד (שמואל א' כד יג) כאשר יאמר משל הקדמוני מרשעים יצא רשע, ומשל הקדמוני היא התורה, שהיא משל הקב"ה שהוא קדמונו של עולם. והיכן אמרה תורה מרשעים יצא רשע, והא-להים אנה לידו. במה הכתוב מדבר, בשני בני אדם, אחד הרג שוגג ואחד הרג מזיד, ולא היו עדים בדבר שיעידו, זה ...


7

Rambam, Sanhedrin chapter 19 lists "every thou-shalt-not that has kares and has no death by court and for which one gets lashes" (twenty-one of them, including eating chametz on Pesach). He then lists eighteen sins for which people are "liable to death at the hands of God", implication being that they don't have kares, such as a non-kohen who ate t'ruma.


7

Judicial execution is not the same as murder. The same torah that says "do not murder" also calls for the death penalty for certain transgressions, so there must be a difference. Tractate Sanhedrin discusses capital punishment in a fair bit of detail. There are strict rules, but nonetheless a death sentence is possible and does not violate lo tirtzach.


7

To show you how important Shalom Bayis is.


7

The Gemara in Sanhedrin 7a says that Aaron's intention was noble. He saw that the Yidden had stoned Chur to death and realised if he opposed them he would meet the same end. By killing Aaron the Jews would commit an unparalleled crime, of Killing a Kohein Venovi. Just take a look at the retribution God exacted for the killing of Zecharyah, a Coheon Venovi. ...


7

In the ancient Near East, gods were worshiped at their altars. This is where each god was thought to live - its altar. A very common decoration under the god was a gold bull or calf. Although we wanted to worship an idol and were creating the calf to that end, Aaron had a different idea in mind. He wanted to create a throne for G-d. He said, "אֵלֶּה ...


7

The Gemara says that a non-Jew is liable to death for stealing less than a penny. "אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן בן נח נהרג על פחות משוה פרוטה ולא ניתן להשבון" The Rambam agrees.


7

I'd like to answer along two dimensions, one about capital punishment and one more broad. First, it is possible for the conditions to be met under which capital punishment can apply. Tractate Sanhedrin in the talmud discusses in great detail the relevant laws. We know that sentences of capital punishment were carried out in the past. They were rare, with ...


7

The Sheiltot (R. Achai Gaon, 8th c.) says that although a parent can forgo his honor, he cannot forgo the prohibition against striking and cursing. שאלתות (פ׳ משפטים סוף סא): האב שמחל על כבודו, כבודו מחול, ה״מ כבודו, אבל הכאתו וקללתו, לא. The Minchat Chinuch (R. Joseph Babad, 19th c.), on the other hand, holds that a father can forgo the prohibition against ...


7

Excellent question. The answer to your question can be found in Sanhedrin 41a ארבעים שנה קודם חורבן הבית גלתה סנהדרי וישבה לה בחנות ואמר רבי יצחק בר אבודימי לומר שלא דנו דיני קנסות דיני קנסות סלקא דעתך אלא שלא דנו דיני נפשות Rashi explains that the capital punishment cannot be applied only if Sanhedrin is in the Lishkat Hagazis (which is located in ...


7

Rambam writes in Hilchot Melachim uMilchamoteihem 9:14 that non-Jews are commanded to establish courts to try those that transgress the seven Noachide commandments (which include murder). A non-Jew can be convicted on the basis of a single witness’ testimony, and there is no requirement to warn him first. The punishment for transgressing any of the Noachide ...


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