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Two basic answers exist to this question: In reality, when the calendar was decided by testimony of the new moon, this phrase probably did not exist in the prayers. Maseches Sofrim 19:4 writes: בחג שבועות אומר ביום טוב מקרא קודש הזה וביום חג השבועות הזה וערבית שחרית ומנחה שוין בתפלות In fact, the Ritva (to Shabbos 86b) and Rivash (Shut no. 96) imply ...


Rav Yehoshua ibn Shu’ib, Rabbi Mordecai ben Abraham Benet, and the Mateh Moshe (Laws of Shavuot 690) explain that for this reason the more general word 'time' is used instead of the more precise 'day' (the term usually used to refer to a one day holiday), because it hasn't always been the exact day, but it always is in the general time frame of Matan Torah. ...


The fixed calendar already prevents Yom Kippur from falling on a Friday or Sunday, to avoid two consecutive days where all melachot are forbidden. (See Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 428:1 with e.g. Magen Avraham, Biur HaGra, Biur Halachah.) If we were to also prevent Yom Kippur from falling on Shabbat, that would lead to a situation where the new moon of ...


Yom Kippur is described in Vayikra 23 as a kind of Shabbat, a "Shabbat Shabbaton", as it is written: אַ֡ךְ בֶּעָשׂ֣וֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ֩ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֨י הַזֶּ֜ה י֧וֹם הַכִּפֻּרִ֣ים ה֗וּא ... שַׁבַּ֨ת שַׁבָּת֥וֹן הוּא֙ לָכֶ֔ם וְעִנִּיתֶ֖ם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶ֑ם בְּתִשְׁעָ֤ה לַחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בָּעֶ֔רֶב מֵעֶ֣רֶב עַד־עֶ֔רֶב תִּשְׁבְּת֖וּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶֽם׃ Mark, the tenth ...


I remember a theory that they really died during the bar Kochva revolt, which squares with the"one period" talmudic quote and the large number (a million Jews died). This theory is consistent with the Talmud because Jewish teaching is that early deaths can be attributed to sinning.


Tashbetz (i:178) raises the possibility of when this period ended. It starts from Pesach, and ends (said in the name of Rabbi Zerachia Halevi in the name of some old sefardí book) at the ‘pras’ of Atezres. He discusses what exactly pras may refer to. Kohelet Rabbah (11:6) says specifically from Pesach to Atezres.

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