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16

The Mishnah cites eating in haste as one of the few differences between the paschal offering that first year and that of subsequent years. The modern Passover meal is modeled primarily on the latter.


14

The Maharal (Chapter 56 of Gevuros Hashem) points out that the plagues follow a pattern, split into units of 3 - the first of each group (plagues 1, 4, and 7) are preceded by a warning to Pharaoh issued by the Nile. The second of each group (2, 5, and 8) are preceded by a warning issued to Pharaoh while sitting on his throne. The third of each group has no ...


11

Rabbi Yosef Deutsch in Let My Nation Go, page 259, writes: The wind carried every single locust east to the sea so that not one locust remained in Egypt. The locusts would await the Egyptians by the sea, and when the Egyptians would pursue the Jewish people to the sea, the locusts would torment them once again. The footnotes source this to the work V’...


10

The letters בגד כפת have two versions, one with Dagesh and one without. It gets a Dagesh after a closed syllable, or in the beginning of a word. In this instance, the previous word ends with an open syllable. Therefore the פ does not receive a Dagesh. What of many instances where we see a word-initial פ receive a Dagesh where the previous word ended with ...


10

Tanchuma Parshas Bo 4 explains the sequence (from Sefaria.org) by comparing the plagues to a siege upon an enemy City: נטה (את) ידך על השמים (שמות י כא). בטכסיס [מלך] בשר ודם הביא הקדוש ב"ה עליהם את המכות, מלך בשר ודם כיון שהמדינה מורדת עליו, מה עושה משלח לגיונות, והן מקיפין עליה, בתחילה הוא (שובר) [סוכר] אמת המים שלהם, אם חוזרין מוטב, ואם לאו הוא מביא ...


9

Because the Egyptians were looking for any excuse to say that the plagues were not of divine origin. If they were not of divine origin then the Egyptians wouldn't feel the need to let the Jews go. If they saw any reason, no matter how slight, to say that they were not from G-d, they would jump on that opportunity. Moshe did not want to give them that ...


9

Many laws applied to the Passover offering that do not apply to the Seder. For example, the Passover offering can only be eaten by people who are Tahor (a specific form of ritual purity). There is no requirement to be Tahor to attend a Seder nowadays. Similarly, the Passover offering had to be eaten only by the invited members of a group. Nowadays, anyone ...


8

Rabbi Hirsch points out several patterns, but recall that God had told Abraham: "Your offspring will be a foreigner in a land not theirs, they will be enslaved, and tormented. The Jews experienced three types of Egyptian behavior: "you don't belong here", "you are less than us", and inflicting pain. Each trio of plagues therefore followed the same pattern ...


7

Due to Egyptian immorality, there were actually a lot of firstborns. All of these were counted: Firstborn of the mother Firstborn of the father Male Female Oldest in the house, even if not a firstborn All Egyptian firstborns, even in other countries Firstborns of other nationalities currently in Egypt Rashi to Ex. 12:30, s.v. כי אין בית אשר אין שם מת and ...


7

The Zohar (vol. 2 34a) explains (translation from chabad.org): Rabbi Simeon [bar Yochai] continued: It is now fitting to reveal mysteries connected with that which is above and that which is below. Why is it written, "Come in to Pharaoh"? Ought it not rather to have said, "Go to Pharaoh"? It is to indicate that G-d brought Moses into a chamber ...


7

The explanation that I once heard for this was that the makkos were intended to teach a lesson to Pharaoh, and a very specific lesson. Pharaoh believed in gods with powers. Seeing something paranormal wasn't the end of the discussion for Pharaoh. What fascinated Pharaoh was absolute power - Pharaoh believed in a pantheon of gods, and one G-d with absolute ...


6

Excerpted from an article by R' Maury Grebenau: The Seforno (Shemos 12:13) assumes that it was in fact Hashem who carried out the plague. The "maschis" that is referred to is just a reference to the destruction that Hashem will create. It isn't referring to an angel. The Ohr Hachayim (there) understands that it was a two part system. Hashem was ...


6

Rashi (12:32) says that Pharoah asked Moshe to bless him because he was a firstborn and thus was liable to die in the plague.


6

The next Rashi gives two answers to this question: שהיו שמחין לאידם של ישראל ועוד שלא יאמרו יראתנו הביאה הפורענו' זו They were happy with the enslavement of Israel, and also so that they wouldn't be able to say that their god brought these disasters upon Egypt.


6

The lesson quoted in the question, "If [a commandment] comes your way, perform it immediately" (in the Hebrew "מצוה הבאה לידך אל תחמיצנה") isn't implying a time restraint but rather an overall idea that the execution of a given commandment should not be delayed or put on the back burner. This concept is echoed in another lesson by the rabbis (BT Pesahim 4a):...


5

As others have answered, technically the establishment of the calendar is a prerequisite for observing the Jewish holidays. This commandment is in fact the first mitzva given to the Jewish people as a nation. (The few mitzvot recorded in Bereishit were given to individuals before we became a nation.) The Seforno explains that setting the Jewish calendar ...


5

From Me'am Lo'ez: The darkness was not like the darkness of night, but was something palpable. Our sages state that it could be felt, just like a coin. (Tanchuma; Shemot Rabbah. The measure of the "thickness of a coin [dinar]" is that which is considered to have substance; see Chulin 55b. Rashash on Shemot Rabbah writes that the darkness was like ...


5

The intuitive etymological connection is made by Radak. I'm sure that there are others who make the same point as well... I did manage to find a source for this connection here, although it still requires understanding as to what the connection (other than the words themselves) might be. To summarize the content: Rabbi Jonathan Ziring (the author of ...


5

Gam Ani Odcha - Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky answers based on Menachos 34b that the Shel Rosh is more Chashuv than the Shel Yad therefore Rashi mentions the Shel Rosh first. תשובה: משום חשיבותה, עיין מנחות ל״ד ב׳. [בגמרא שם איתא, תפילה של יד עושין אותה של ראש, ושל ראש אין עושין אותה של יד, לפי שאין מורידין מקדושה חמורה לקדושה קלה. ע״כ].‏


4

God gives this instruction - "בא אל פרעה" - to Moshe preceding three of the Plagues: Frogs (Shemot 7:26), Dead Animals (Shemot 9:1), and Locusts (Shemot 10:1 - your question). According to R' Samson Raphael Hirsch's scheme for understanding the purposes of the Plagues, laid out in his commentary on 7:15, these three plagues, each the second in a group of ...


4

The Ibn Ezra (ad loc.) writes that without the commandment to set the months, we would observe the holidays by season (e.g. shamor es chodesh ha'aviv, v'chag hakatzir bikkurei ma'asecha, etc.). However, setting the halachic calendar is an intrinsic part of the holidays, as mentioned by DoubleAA, so the commandment of "hachodesh hazeh" is appropriately placed ...


4

They were a mixture from other nations that decided to join the Jews at the exodus (Oknkelos, Rashi and pretty much everyone I could find, although some identify them specifically as Egyptians). Rabbi Gansfried quotes various opinions as to their size, based on the idea that the 600,000 number represents one fifth of the total that left. Whether that ...


4

Rashi on Chumash channels midrashic works, selecting those midrashim that fit his stated criteria and reworking them to form a commentary. Rashi has favored midrashim on different chumashim. On sefer Shemot, he channels the Mechilta, which is a midrash composed on Shemot. Indeed, follow your link to Shemot 12 and see how many of his sources are from the ...


4

Chassam Soffer in Toras Moshe addresses the discrepancies of the lack of the clothing and the word vayinatzilu. He points to Rashi in Vayishlach 35 2 where the clothing we suspect of being from avoda zara. As such, Hashem couldn't command the Bnei Yisroel to take clothing that had pictures of avoda zara. This would also preclude emptying out all their gold ...


4

The "tenth" plague was actually announced at the very beginning Shmos 4:23 So I say to you, 'Send out My son so that he will worship Me, but if you refuse to send him out, behold, I am going to slay your firstborn son.' " Rashi Send out My son… but if you refuse to send him out, behold, I am going to slay, etc.: That is the last plague, but He ...


4

Rashi (Shemot 7:25) writes that each plague lasted a week, and there were three weeks of admonition before each plague: וימלא: מנין שבעת ימים, שלא שב היאור לקדמותו, שהיתה המכה משמשת רביע חדש ושלשה חלקים היה מעיד ומתרה בהם: Seven full days passed: Heb. וַיְּמָּלֵא, literally, seven days were filled. Since the word וַיְּמָּלֵא is singular, Rashi explains: The ...


4

I found the explanation in the commentary in the Hirsch Chumash Shmos 12:2 translated to English by his grandson Rabbi Levy. I got it many years ago but you should find new editions via google such as Feldheim Publishers Rav Hirsch goes into a very lengthy explanation of the meaning of this mitzvah and why it is the first mitzvah received as a nation and ...


4

Rav Hirsch says that it is indeed a subtlety in the meaning that is being expressed here. Bo (12:9) it is derived from נוא (to be disturbed, to be interrupted in a movement which has been commenced) incomplete ... The opposite is בשל מבושל במים to be thoroughly cooked by the addition of water or other liquid. You received freedom complete from the ...


4

The answer is that the basic premise of the question that there are four discrete children, and all the Midrashim refer to "the same child", is baseless. In reality, the pashut peshat is that the four verses are synonymous. Pashtanically, for example, "what is this service to you" is not an antagonistic mockery, and it is not interpreted this way by any of ...


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