There is no record of the membership of Beis Shammai, or Beis Hillel for that matter. The Babylonian Talmud tells us a bit about Beis Hillel -- e.g. Sukkos 28a and Bava Basra 134a record the number of Hillel's disciples as 80 (see also Yeurshalmi Talmud, Nedarim 39b), and both sources mention two of them by name, Yonasan ben Uzziel and Yochanan ben Zakkai, ...
This phenomenon is described by R. Shimshon of Chinon in his Sefer HaKeritot (Leshon Limmudim, Sha'ar Sheni, 73).
He suggests that:
ושמא בילדותו תנא להו כמו שאמרו ב"ש וחזר בו בזקנותו והמשנה לא זזה ממקומה.
Perhaps he taught to them when he was younger as is stated by Beit Shammai, and then he changed his mind when he was older, but the [original]...
In terms of why they argue, the Arizal wrote that Beis Shammai embodied the characteristic of middas hadin, strict justice, whereas Beis Hillel embodied the attribute of middas harachamim, mercy. They had world-views which led to their manifold disputes, with B"S consistently falling on the side of stringency and B"H on the side of leniency.
(It was once ...
The opinion of the House of Shammai, as quoted in the Mishnah (Gittin 90a), is:
Beit Shammai say: A man may not divorce his wife unless he finds out about her having engaged in a matter of forbidden sexual intercourse [devar erva], as it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter [ervat davar] in her, and he writes her a scroll of severance” (...
Rabbi S.R. Hirsch writes that the story cannot be understood like this, because then the vote would be meaningless. He explains that Beis Hillel had been refusing a formal vote, and Beis Shammai on that day gathered outside the building and forcefully prevented Beis Hillel from leaving until a vote was held. Beis Hillel were the majority, but Beis Shammai ...
This discrepancy is addressed in the footnotes of the collected lectures of the Lubavitcher Rebbe.
Likutei Sichos Vol. 17 p. 114 note 37
ועד"ז יש לבאר במאמר שמאי אבות פ"א מט"ו הוי מקבל את כל האדם בסבר פנים
יפות אף שמצינו שהנהגתו היתה באופן הפכי בהנכרים שבאו להתגייר אצלו (שבת
לא א) והרי במאמרו האדם (בה"א) כולל גם בני נח (תוד"ה ואין יבמות סא א)
This kind of questions are generally in masechet Eduyot.
Masechet Eduyot 1, 12 until the end of the perek,
5, several Mishnayot with Kule BS.
Shabbat 1, 4:
Succa 2, 7:
Tosfot in Succa 3a in name of Rav Amram Gaon listed 6 places, one of them is in the answer of Loevian, in the 8th chapter of berachot:
דאמר לך מני ב''ש היא ולא תזוז מינה כו'. ...
R. Shlomo Yosef Zevin wrote a classic article, printed in his Le-Or Ha-Halachah, where he argues that Beit Shammai focused on potential, whereas Beit Hillel focused on the actual.
From memory, a number of arguments he explains according to this theory:
Increasing or decreasing the number of chanukah candles each day
At what point is a fish susceptible to ...
The Rosh says two answers:
ור״י חילק משוס למזיגה היא בחמין צריך דקדוק גדול שלא יתסר ושלא יותיר ואיכא היסת הדעת טפי. ור"ת ירץ דהתם מיירי בחול ואם יתול ידיו תתלה לפעמים יתעסק בשאר צרכים ולא יאכל אלתר ואתי לאסוחי דעתיה אבל בשכח השלחן ערוך ליכא למיחש להכי
The Ri: The argument between Beis Shammai and Beis Hillel is only when you have to mix the wine. If you'...
According to this article:
The Korban HaEida explains that the students of Shamai stood outside the house and prevented most of the students of Hillel from entering in order to sway the halacha.
Rambam (Pirush Hamishnah) says that all of the leaders of the generation were there, and there was no one fit to rule that was not present. Yet, because most of ...
The basic halacha in disputes between Bais Hillel and Bais Shammai is according to Bais Hillel as we see in Eruvin 13b. The point is that he stopped and lay down (putting himself in saccanah) when he did not have to.
R'Abba stated in the name of Samuel: For three years there was a
dispute between Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel, the former asserting,
You've asked a terrific question. This article provides good insight that Shammai's adage in Pirkei Avot and the situation described in Talmud Shabbat are not contradictory at all. Excerpts:
It is important to recognize, however, that Shammai was not merely
exhibiting impatience and short-temperedness. He certainly did believe
in greeting others ...
The Iggeres HaRav Sherira HaGaon, a fabulous history of the Oral Torah and how it came to be written down in the Mishna and subsequently in the Gemara, speaks to this point. Rav Sherira (ca 900-1000 CE), who was one of the last heads of the Pumbedisa yeshiva, states that following the destruction of the Second Temple, the various rabbis and their students ...
Hillel and Shamai themselves were the last of the Zugot -- pairs of scholars who served as the Nasi (prince) and Av Beit Din (chief justice), respectively. The Zugot are listed in the first perek of Masechet Avot (Pirkei Avot).
The Steinsaltz Talmudic reference guide contains a nice chart listing the generations of Tannaim and Ammoraim. According to it, the ...
According to Tosafos Yeshanim at the end of Maseches Yoma, stam Rabi Yosei is Rabi Yosei ben Chalafta. So I'll point out these ideas from here
Which point to him being non-affiliated with either school.
It is very likely that he studied much under his father, Ḥalafta, whose authority he ...
I like Rav Zevin's theory, already shared by Joel K in his answer.
That said, though, there is strong indication that the legal differences derive from a misunderstanding. Sotah 47b says:
משרבו תלמידי שמאי והילל שלא שימשו כל צורכן רבו מחלוקת בישראל ונעשית תורה כשתי תורות
When the students of Shamai and Hillel multiplied, so that they didn't properly serve ...
The idea comes from the following passage in Shabbat 31a:
"There was another incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai and said to Shammai: Convert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot. Shammai pushed him away with the builder’s cubit in his hand. (This was a common measuring stick and Shammai ...
Batei midrash of other sages are in fact mentioned, they're just usually referred to in Aramaic "בי" - "Bei".
Bei Rabbi Yannai:
"דְּבֵי רַבִּי יַנַּאי אָמְרִי, מֵהָכָא: ״וְדִי זָהָב״.
The Sages of the school of Rabbi Yannai, however, say proof that Moses spoke impertinently toward God on High is derived from here, Moses’...
The Rosh in Hilchos Tzitzis (Found in Menachos) asks this very question on Rashi's shita:
ועוד הקשה ר''ת ז"ל דבריש יבמות אמר אפילו מ"ד דלא דריש סמוכין בעלמא במשנה תורה דרש. ובסדר רב עמרם חשיב ו' דברים דהלכה כב"ש והך חדא מינייהו ובכל דוכתי קי"ל דעשה דוחה לא תעשה וילפינן לה מכלאים בציצית.
The Maadanei YomTov explains the Rosh's question ...
Re: R' Eliezer, In Niddah 7b it says:
כל ימיו של רבי אליעזר היו עושין כרבי יהושע לאחר פטירתו של רבי אליעזר החזיר רבי יהושע את הדבר ליושנו כרבי אליעזר בחייו מ"ט לא משום דרבי אליעזר שמותי הוא
(Note the word in bold: שמותי)
The generally accepted translation in English is:
Throughout the lifetime of R. Eliezer the people acted in accordance with the ruling ...
The Maharal on Avos suggests an answer that combines two of the already given ideas.
Hillel and Shammai themselves only disagreed three or maybe five times. Shabbos 15a, Chagiga 2:2, Eduyos 1:2-3, Niddah 1:1) Then their students have 316 recorded disputes! The explanation for this explosion in number is given as "they did not serve their mentors" (Sanhedrin ...
Yehoshua ben Karcha was almost certainly Rabbi Akiva's son. Ben Karcha means son of the bald one which was a code that he was the son of Rabbi Akiva who was indeed bald. This name was utilized to protect Yehoshua's real identity from the Romans to avoid persecution.
This is in keeping with the Igeret of Rav Sherira Gaon.
The students of both Shammai and Hillel were not on the level of their Masters. As a result, they took different views and quarreling increased. They would sometimes disagree with their Masters teaching.
If you are asking about how they could disagree in practice, meaning wouldn't that demonstrate a ...
Michael Satlow has a publicly available list (digitized from Aaron Hyman, Toldot Tanaʾim ṿe-Amoraʾim : mesudar ʻa. p. a.b. ʻim beʾurim ṿe-hagahot ṿe-girsaʾot shonot) of Tannaim and Amoraim.
Yes, there were later Hillels and Shammais. He has (based on an Excel spreadsheet version I have privately) the following later people:
Shammai (I) the Zaken
Potential answer to the first question will edit as soon as I have an answer to the 2nd
Source: Sefaria: Mikdash Melech to Zohar Parshat Bereishit 17b
In the time of the Messiah, we will follow the law according to Shammai. Hillel represents kindness and Shammai severity (hence the rulings of Beit Hillel are almost always more lenient). When the Messiah ...