14

There is no record of the membership of Beis Shammai, or Beis Hillel for that matter. The Babylonian Talmud tells us a bit about Beis Hillel -- e.g. Sukkos 28a and Bava Basra 134a record the number of Hillel's disciples as 80 (see also Yeurshalmi Talmud, Nedarim 39b), and both sources mention two of them by name, Yonasan ben Uzziel and Yochanan ben Zakkai, ...


12

In terms of why they argue, the Arizal wrote that Beis Shammai embodied the characteristic of middas hadin, strict justice, whereas Beis Hillel embodied the attribute of middas harachamim, mercy. They had world-views which led to their manifold disputes, with B"S consistently falling on the side of stringency and B"H on the side of leniency. (It was once ...


12

This phenomenon is described by R. Shimshon of Chinon in his Sefer HaKeritot (Leshon Limmudim, Sha'ar Sheni, 73). He suggests that: ושמא בילדותו תנא להו כמו שאמרו ב"ש וחזר בו בזקנותו והמשנה לא זזה ממקומה.‏ Perhaps he taught to them when he was younger as is stated by Beit Shammai, and then he changed his mind when he was older, but the [original]...


9

The opinion of the House of Shammai, as quoted in the Mishnah (Gittin 90a), is: Beit Shammai say: A man may not divorce his wife unless he finds out about her having engaged in a matter of forbidden sexual intercourse [devar erva], as it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter [ervat davar] in her, and he writes her a scroll of severance” (...


9

Actually, a list isn't hard to compile at all- it was already done by the mishna! Meseches Ediyus, chapter 4, gives a list of 'leniencies of Beis Shammai'.


8

Rabbi S.R. Hirsch writes that the story cannot be understood like this, because then the vote would be meaningless. He explains that Beis Hillel had been refusing a formal vote, and Beis Shammai on that day gathered outside the building and forcefully prevented Beis Hillel from leaving until a vote was held. Beis Hillel were the majority, but Beis Shammai ...


7

This discrepancy is addressed in the footnotes of the collected lectures of the Lubavitcher Rebbe. Likutei Sichos Vol. 17 p. 114 note 37 ועד"ז יש לבאר במאמר שמאי אבות פ"א מט"ו הוי מקבל את כל האדם בסבר פנים יפות אף שמצינו שהנהגתו היתה באופן הפכי בהנכרים שבאו להתגייר אצלו (שבת לא א) והרי במאמרו האדם (בה"א) כולל גם בני נח (תוד"ה ואין יבמות סא א) ...


6

This kind of questions are generally in masechet Eduyot. Masechet Eduyot 1, 12 until the end of the perek, 5, several Mishnayot with Kule BS. Shabbat 1, 4: Succa 2, 7: Tosfot in Succa 3a in name of Rav Amram Gaon listed 6 places, one of them is in the answer of Loevian, in the 8th chapter of berachot: דאמר לך מני ב''ש היא ולא תזוז מינה כו'. ...


6

Bava Ben Buta was a student of Beis Shammai, however he accepted the ruling of Beis Hillel והיה שם זקן אחד מתלמידי שמאי הזקן ובבא בן בוטא שמו (Beitzah 20a)


6

R. Shlomo Yosef Zevin wrote a classic article, printed in his Le-Or Ha-Halachah, where he argues that Beit Shammai focused on potential, whereas Beit Hillel focused on the actual. From memory, a number of arguments he explains according to this theory: Increasing or decreasing the number of chanukah candles each day At what point is a fish susceptible to ...


5

According to this article: The Korban HaEida explains that the students of Shamai stood outside the house and prevented most of the students of Hillel from entering in order to sway the halacha. Rambam (Pirush Hamishnah) says that all of the leaders of the generation were there, and there was no one fit to rule that was not present. Yet, because most of ...


4

You've asked a terrific question. This article provides good insight that Shammai's adage in Pirkei Avot and the situation described in Talmud Shabbat are not contradictory at all. Excerpts: It is important to recognize, however, that Shammai was not merely exhibiting impatience and short-temperedness. He certainly did believe in greeting others ...


4

The basic halacha in disputes between Bais Hillel and Bais Shammai is according to Bais Hillel as we see in Eruvin 13b. The point is that he stopped and lay down (putting himself in saccanah) when he did not have to. R'Abba stated in the name of Samuel: For three years there was a dispute between Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel, the former asserting, '...


4

The Rosh says two answers: ור״י חילק משוס למזיגה היא בחמין צריך דקדוק גדול שלא יתסר ושלא יותיר ואיכא היסת הדעת טפי. ור"ת ירץ דהתם מיירי בחול ואם יתול ידיו תתלה לפעמים יתעסק בשאר צרכים ולא יאכל אלתר ואתי לאסוחי דעתיה אבל בשכח השלחן ערוך ליכא למיחש להכי The Ri: The argument between Beis Shammai and Beis Hillel is only when you have to mix the wine. If you'...


4

The Iggeres HaRav Sherira HaGaon, a fabulous history of the Oral Torah and how it came to be written down in the Mishna and subsequently in the Gemara, speaks to this point. Rav Sherira (ca 900-1000 CE), who was one of the last heads of the Pumbedisa yeshiva, states that following the destruction of the Second Temple, the various rabbis and their students ...


4

According to Tosafos Yeshanim at the end of Maseches Yoma, stam Rabi Yosei is Rabi Yosei ben Chalafta. So I'll point out these ideas from here http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8789-jose-ben-halafta Which point to him being non-affiliated with either school. It is very likely that he studied much under his father, Ḥalafta, whose authority he ...


3

Hillel and Shamai themselves were the last of the Zugot -- pairs of scholars who served as the Nasi (prince) and Av Beit Din (chief justice), respectively. The Zugot are listed in the first perek of Masechet Avot (Pirkei Avot). The Steinsaltz Talmudic reference guide contains a nice chart listing the generations of Tannaim and Ammoraim. According to it, the ...


3

I like Rav Zevin's theory, already shared by Joel K in his answer. That said, though, there is strong indication that the legal differences derive from a misunderstanding. Sotah 47b says: משרבו תלמידי שמאי והילל שלא שימשו כל צורכן רבו מחלוקת בישראל ונעשית תורה כשתי תורות When the students of Shamai and Hillel multiplied, so that they didn't properly serve ...


2

Re: R' Eliezer, In Niddah 7b it says: כל ימיו של רבי אליעזר היו עושין כרבי יהושע לאחר פטירתו של רבי אליעזר החזיר רבי יהושע את הדבר ליושנו כרבי אליעזר בחייו מ"ט לא משום דרבי אליעזר שמותי הוא (Note the word in bold: שמותי) The generally accepted translation in English is: Throughout the lifetime of R. Eliezer the people acted in accordance with the ruling ...


2

The Maharal on Avos suggests an answer that combines two of the already given ideas. Hillel and Shammai themselves only disagreed three or maybe five times. Shabbos 15a, Chagiga 2:2, Eduyos 1:2-3, Niddah 1:1) Then their students have 316 recorded disputes! The explanation for this explosion in number is given as "they did not serve their mentors" (Sanhedrin ...


2

Yehoshua ben Karcha was almost certainly Rabbi Akiva's son. Ben Karcha means son of the bald one which was a code that he was the son of Rabbi Akiva who was indeed bald. This name was utilized to protect Yehoshua's real identity from the Romans to avoid persecution.


2

This is in keeping with the Igeret of Rav Sherira Gaon. The students of both Shammai and Hillel were not on the level of their Masters. As a result, they took different views and quarreling increased. They would sometimes disagree with their Masters teaching. If you are asking about how they could disagree in practice, meaning wouldn't that demonstrate a ...


1

Adapted from Rav Samson Raphael Hirsch’s explanation (Collected Writings, §VII, “Rabban Gamliel and His Times”, pp. 84–90), who points out that Bavli Shabbos 17a is referring to the same incident: For various reasons, Beis Hillel was avoiding a binding vote of the Sanhedrin (which was meeting in Chaninah ben Chizkiya ben Garon’s upper-floor study while he ...


1

According to the Mesilat Yesharim the pshat of our Gemara is linked to the fact that, at a certain point of our history, the existing of Tora did depend on a clear decision that everyone needs to follow Bet Hillel. The Gemara quoted below in Yebamot illustrates that this point. The assertion of the Mesilat Yesharim wasn't clearly admitted by Rabbi Tarfon, ...


1

We see from Bava Metsiah 84b that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Karcha learned in the beit midrash of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel in Usha (of the fourth generation). Since the latter is a direct descendent of Hillel, we can reasonably assume that his beit midrash taught according to Beit Hillel. This would make Rabbi Yehoshua ben Karcha a member of Beit Hillel. More ...


1

The Mishna in Chapter one, Mishna 4 of Tractate Shabbat says that they once took a head count and found there were more representatives of Beit Shamai than Beit Hillel and that day they decided 18 Halachot according to Beit Shammai. Rabbeinu Ovadiya MiBartenura lists them all. I don't know if that's all the places we rule like Beit Shammai, though.


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible