A general rule is stated in the Talmud (Ketubot 19a):
דאמר מר אין לך דבר שעומד בפני פיקוח נפש אלא עבודת כוכבים וגלוי עריות ושפיכות דמים בלבד
for a Master said: 'There is nothing that comes before the saving of life except idolatry, incest and bloodshed only. (Soncino translation)
(“Incest” is actually an imprecise translation. The term giluy arayot ...
I. Among the 10 commandments there are 3 that are not overridden by pikuach nefesh (i.e. יהרג ואל יעבור):
Forbidden sexual relations
II. Additionally, all other commandments cannot be overridden under specific conditions:
If a gentile forces him to violate any one mitzva, not for his own personal benefit, but solely to have him violate the ...
That which you call the 10 commandments are in Hebrew referred to as the Aseres HaDibros, which means the 10 utterances or 10 statements. There is no implication that there are 10 commandments therein. I think your 40 is a bit excessive (as you conceded), but the classic counts list either 13 (Behag) or 14 (Rambam) commandments in these 10 statements.
Aruch Hashulchan 1:17:
Even if he has a son and daughter from an unmarried woman whom he did not marry with chupa and kidushin…, nonetheless he has fulfilled the command of p'ru urvu… for, after all, they are his offspring and fit to have children.
The Rema in Even Ha'Ezer 1:6 writes that one fulfills the mitzvah of p'ru u'revu with a child who is a mamzer, which by definition is out of wedlock:
היה הבן ממזר... קים המצוה
If the child is a mamzer, he fulfills the mitzvah.
Minchas Chinuch Mitzvah #1 explains that it is not a mitzvah haba b'aveira using the idea of the Shaar HaMelech Hilchos ...
A Medrash states that G-d offered the Torah to the children of Eisau. They rejected it, saying they could not accept this very commandment against murder. This begs the question: Eisau's descendants also have a law against murder! Why couldn't they accept G-d's law if it was already illegal by their own standard?
Rabbi Yaakov Weinberg ZT"L answers as ...
"Don't steal" includes don't steal someone's soda.
The "don't steal" commandment appears in both Exodus and Leviticus. Leviticus refers to property, as the next phrase is -- and don't lie or deny about it.
Yes, the Talmud says the verse in Exodus refers to kidnapping. But regardless of which verse it is, don't steal! (The punishment is to pay back double,...
If not for the prohibition, murder would carry no defined penalty in civil courts. The Torah prohibition makes murder always a capital crime. Same with stealing - if there was no explicit mitzvah, there would not be a set punishment entrusted to earthly courts.
The distinction is found in the Mishna (Yoma 8:9 (English)):
עברות שבין אדם למקום, יום הכפורים מכפר.
עברות שבין אדם לחברו כד, אין יום הכפורים מכפר, עד שירצה את חברו.
את זו דרש רבי אלעזר בן עזריה, (ויקרא טז) מכל חטאתיכם לפני יי תטהרו, עברות שבין אדם למקום, יום הכפורים מכפר. עברות שבין ...
It would seem that original Minhag Ashkenaz was to use ta'am elyon only on Shavu'ot, but on shabbat parashat yitro and shabbat parashat va'etchanan to use ta'am tachton. This can be seen in the commentary of Hizkuni to Shemot 20:14, and is also the practice prescribed by Masat Binyamin, quoted in Magen Avraham 494:1.
Magen Avraham also notes the Sephardic ...
The Mishna arranges laws topically, and so the ten commandments aren't discussed together.
I am the Lord your God: No punishment is discussed regarding this verse to my knowledge
Idol worship: Stoning (Sanhedrin 7:4)
Swearing in vain: Lashes (Shevuot 3:8)
Desecration of Sabbath: Stoning (Sanhedrin 7:4).
Honoring parents: No punishment is discussed to my ...
The new covenant replaced the old one. The reason the Jews keep the 7 Noachide laws is not because of the commandments to their pre-Mosaic ancestors, but because of the covenant at Sinai. In fact, according to Maimonides' Laws of Kings and their Wars 8:14 this is arguably also the reason why gentiles post-Sinai are still obligated in their 7 commandments.
On a less miraculous note, the ibn Ezra (Shemos 20:1)rejects a literal reading of the chazal that shamor and zachor were said simultaneously. In a lengthy piece, he promotes the idea that words embody meaning and when there is a quote of someone where words are added to the quote, or changed, this is not a contradiction. The quote is merely elaborating on ...
Raavan (12th cent.) writes that the prohibition against murder includes killing non Jews:
ראב"ן בבא קמא
וכ"ש שאסור לגנוב לגוי דלא תגנוב דומיא דלא תרצח ולא תנאף דהוי בין לישראל בין לגוי.
Rambam, on the other hand, writes (Hilkhot Rotseah 1:1) that that particular prohibition only applies to Jews:
כל הורג נפש אדם מישראל--עובר בלא תעשה, שנאמר "לא ...
Rashi and Ramban hold (citing Rabbi Yoshiyah in Sanhedrin 86a) that "lo tignov" in Shemot 20:13 means that one should not kidnap another person. Rashi's reasoning is that those who break the commandments of "lo tirtzah" and "lo tin'af" are subject to the death penalty, so it makes sense that one who breaks "lo tignov" also is subject to the death penalty. ...
Rashi (Song 4:5) explains how each commandment on one tablet corresponds to one on the next:
שני שדיך על שם הלוחות תאומי צביה שהם מכוונות במדה אחת וחמשה דברות על זו וחמשה על זו מכוונין דבור כנגד דבור, אנכי כנגד לא תרצח שהרוצח ממעט את הדמות של הקב"ה, לא יהיה לך כנגד לא תנאף שהזונה אחר עבודה זרה דרך אשה המנאפת תחת אישה תקח את זרים, לא תשא כנגד לא תגנוב ...
Judaism does not specify the importance or reward of different commandments. We observe them all because God says so without trying to rationalize (although many have proposed explanations for the various commandments, e.g., Sefer Hachinuch).
It is however true that breaching different commandments created the need (in Temple times) for different sacrifices....
Aside from the Seporno mentioned by Ezra, there a few other rishonim who also include monetary theft in Lo Signov.
R. Saadia Gaon writes:
לא תגנב לא תסרק
R. Avraham Ben Harambam writes:
פשטיה דקרא אזהרה על כל גניבה שיש בכלל אזהרה זו גניבת הממון וזולתו
והקרקע וגניבת הנפשות ור' סעדיה ז"ל אמר שיש בכלל התראה זו גם גניבת ממון
העשיר ויפה אמר והמעתיקים ...
Meir Gruber, in Beit Mikra 27:1 (pages 16-21) suggests that this change during Tannaic period in order to combat the growing Christian understanding (see Mark 10:19, which refers to them as the commandments) that only these special "ten commandments" were given to Moshe at Har Sinai. This is linked to the Yerushalmi in Berachos (1:5), which notes this ...
R' Samson Raphael Hirsch's translation1 of this verse is similar to the convention you cite:
Thou shalt have no other God before My Presence.
However, R' Hirsch's commentary on this verse does sound very much like it's directing us to take the phrase "לא יהיה" to mean an absolute negation of being1:
... If God is God, then everything except Him is "no-...
Non-Jews are held responsible by seven laws, known as the Seven Laws of Noah. All of those laws are contained within the Decalogue, with exception to the third law1, the seventh law2, and to an extent, the fifth law3.
The Decalogue contains several laws not found in the Seven Laws of Noah, namely the fourth command4, the fifth command5, the ninth command6, ...
Sefer Hachinuch counts this as Mitzvah 25.
In short, the Mitzvah is belief in G-d.
מצות האמנה במציאות השם - להאמין שיש לעולם אלה אחד, שהמציא כל הנמצא
ומכחו וחפצו היה כל מה שהוא ושהיה ושיהיה לעדי עד, וכי הוא הוציאנו מארץ
מצרים ונתן לנו את התורה. שנאמר בתחלת נתינת התורה (שמות כ ב) אנכי ה'
אלהיך אשר הוצאתיך מארץ מצרים וגו'. ופרושו כאלו אמר תדעו ...
It is forbidden to make decorative images of the human form alone. Therefore, it is forbidden to make human images with wood, cement, or stone. This [prohibition] applies when the image is protruding - for example, images and sculptures made in a hallway and the ...
Rashi (Shemos 24:12) writes that the ten commandments are 10 categories which the 613 fall under.The Bamidbar Rabbah writes that there is 620 letters in the ten commandments 613 for the mitzvos and 7 for the rabbanic mitzvos.
It should be noted that singling out asres hadibros is not so simple because we don't want to show that it is more important than any ...
Hebrew Wikipedia on לא תחמוד says:
הלאו של לא תחמוד כולל את האיסור להוציא מן הזולת בתחבולות, ואף בתמורה
כספית נדיבה, דבר השייך לו. התחבולות האסורות כוללות: הפצרה חוזרת
ונישנית, לחץ חברתי וכמובן כח. העסקת המחשבות על תחבולות כאלו, אסורה גם
היא, ואפילו עצם ההתאוות לנכסי הזולת או הקנאה בהם נאסר
My free translation:
לא תחמוד includes the prohibition of ...
We actually find sarcasm used in the Talmud. One example that comes to mind is in Taanis 24b, where Rav Papa declared a fast day during a drought, but felt very weak. He ate a handful of cereal and went to Daven. The prayers for rain went unanswered. Rav Nachman b. Ushpezati told Rav Papa, 'If you'd eat another handful then you'd get rain'. Rav Papa was ...
The Kli Yakar on the last verse (20:13) explains it nicely. He brings the Mechilta and then sometimes adds his own thoughts.
Here's a brief summary (with some possible additions). The original is below.
1. I am the Lord your Gcd <-> 6. Murder
As humans are created in the image of Gcd, killing a person diminishes the godliness in this world. (Besides ...
The Gemara shortly after the one you quoted makes note that one is not obligated to actively spend money in order to fulfill their chiyuv of kibbud av v'eim, and in the event that they do, they are entitled to reimbursement. While this would seem to indicate only that he takes precedence over his parents, and not his children, there's a Gemara ...
Although many sources say that the Luchos was squared, Rabbi Ben Zion Mutzafi quoting a Zohar in Parshas Yisro and the Ramak רבי משה קורדובירו says that it was squared at the bottom and rounded on the top.