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20

There is some discussion in the Jerusalem Talmud (M'gilla 7a-b) regarding which of the two Adars is considered the leap month (incidentally, halachic ramifications are discussed ad loc.). Medieval commentators interpret the Talmud as concluding that Adar I is the extra month (see Rashi to Rosh HaShana 19b, s.v. kamma ibbur hashana; see also Tosafos ibid., s....


14

After some much Hebrew googling, it seems as though the rationale is the other way around. Adar was doubled because it was the last month of the calendar (which started at Nisan with Passover) back then. The decision was to celebrate Purim (and all the other events) in the second Adar as to keep both redemption celebrations close (Purim and Passover). ...


14

Rashi in the linked Gemara says that the reason we are "marbim b'simcha" is because they are "ymei nisim k'mo Purim v'Pesach" based on which some conclude that Adar Rishon is not included, as no miracles happened in that time period. The Levush (685:1) says that we do not increase simcha in Adar 1. The Sfas Emes says we do. Some want to conclude based on ...


9

The gemara in Megillah 6b-7a explains why when it investigates the Mishnaic statement that in a leap year, one is required to read the megillah in the second Adar to be yotzei the requirement. (as per dafyomi.co.il) R. Eliezer says, every year we celebrate in the month next to Shevat. R. Shimon says, every year we celebrate in the month adjacent to Nisan. ...


9

To solar cycle represents continuity and consistency. The lunar cycle represents rise and fall, והחיות רצוא ושוב. The two cycles don't inherently mesh, and it takes the actions of people (as represented by Beis Din which sets the leap year) to combine the two. See here for a similar expression of this idea. In terms of lessons in Avodas Hashem, there are ...


7

The extra Adar happens when there is a leap year -- we add a month to preserve the lunar properties of the calendar. Seven in nineteen years are leap years, so every 2-3 years on average. From Judaism 101: Adar I is added in the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th years of the cycle. (Technically it is Adar I (aka Adar Alef) that's the additional ...


7

The מהרש"א on that Gemara explains that Moshe having died on the 7th of Adar is something which could be worked out from Scriptures, as the Gemara works it out on Kiddushin 38a (it says they wept for Moshe for 30 days, then Yehoshua told them they had three days before crossing the Yarden, and they came through the Yarden on the 10th day of the 1st month, so ...


5

The Ran on Megillah 3b says that even though one should feast on Adar 1, there's no need for Mishloach Manot because it is similar to Matanot La'Evyonim, which is done only in Adar 2: וקרוב הדבר גם כן שראוי להרבות בסעודה בי"ד שבראשון אבל לענין לשלוח מנות כיון דדמו למתנות לאביונים דליתנהו אלא בשני משמע נמי דאף משלוח מנות אינו אלא בשני However the Ketav ...


5

The extra month is Adar I. That's because Purim (the holiday) is in Adar II, in a leap year. As Purim is celebrated also in non-leap year, the conclusion is that Adar II is the month that is always present whereas Adar I is present only in leap years. My guess is that the MS implementation is wrong.


5

A different angle on the question: at the funeral for Rabbi Emanuel Gettinger (who was a mathematics and astronomy enthusiast), it was suggested that God values our engaging the world. This way, we would have to study astronomy to determine how to modify the calendar. (Recall that the Gemara praises the role of an honest human judge as "partnering with God."...


5

R' Ephraim Greenblatt holds that it applies to some extent to Adar Rishon was well. R' Yiztchak Zilberstein cites sources for both opinions but concludes somewhat tentatively that Adar I is also included. The last Lubavitcher Rebbe also holds that Adar I is included. See here and here. See also here.


5

The pamphlet "הדף היומי בהלכה", published by Dirshu, issue 4, Ⅰ Adar 5774, cites K'dushas Levi (Ki Sisa) and S'fas Emes (likutim for Adar) as saying that the month of Adar (whose zodiac sign is fish) corresponds to Yosef (which, like fish, is unaffected by ayin hara) — see the Tur (OC 417), who says each month corresponds to a tribe. Thus, it had ...


5

I will try to answer the first question on whether Hallel was recited on Yom Nicanor, using classical and rabbinic evidence. There are no sources that record the recitation of Hallel in the celebration of Yom Nicanor. The strongest evidence to indicate that it was said occurs in the Second Book of Maccabees (ch.15), one of the texts historically closest to ...


5

Rashi to Taanis 29a writes that the reason for increasing joy upon the entrance of Adar is that it is a time of miracles, such as Purim and Pesach. The implication of Rashi is that this simcha should last until Pesach, as that is still the time period of the miracles which cause this to be a season of simcha. (And perhaps you should sing the jingle until ...


4

According to the Michtav M'Eliyahu (Vol. 2 pg 125) on the essay titled "משנכנס אדר" he discusses how the command to be joyous when Adar enters is related to the joy of Purim. He explains that the happiness we feel on Purim is a הכרת הטוב - recognizing the goodness - of the miracle of Purim, which is all about revenge. HaShem took revenge on Haman and ונהפוך ...


4

This link is of a Chazan in Khal Adas Yeshurun Jerusalem singing a Birchas Nisim in honor of Purim Frankfurt. This is from 5767/2007.


4

Rashi comments on that Gemara: "days of miracles for the Jewish people: Purim and Pesach". So it seems that Rashi understands that Adar is a time of joy because it begins a period of consecutive holidays commemorating miracles, not because of Purim alone. This may indicate that the joy continues at least throughout the month. (Though I suppose it could be ...


4

A quick Google search shows that the in classic literature and Siddurim it often is called Purim Gadol. On Sefaria you can also find matches for Purim Gadol. That said, for brevity's sake, most times Purim is referred to as Purim, unless it's being distinguished from Purim Katan.


3

An old frankfurter once told me that the only vestige of Purim Frankfurt during his youth in the prewar period was the would sing Adon Olom to the military band tune which accompanied vinz to the gallows.


3

I am assuming that your question refers to the current "fixed" calendar, so it seems that you have numerous answers on that. I wanted to add that historically, this was not always the situation during the time that the Sanhedrin existed and prior to that. I just completed a class on the history and the workings of the Judaic calendar, which you will find ...


3

The Shevet Halevi 10:105:3 brings a whole discussion and seemingly concludes that there is an idea of simcha in the first adar.


3

It does have the effect of making Adar longer with its increased happiness. (This is an incomplete answer, but I can not just add a comment)


3

On the Shabas before Purim, we read the regular weekly parasha, which varies; next year (2017 Gregorian, 5777 Jewish) it will be T'tzave. Most weeks, after concluding the regular weekly parasha, we repeat the last part of it; this second time around is commonly called "maftir". Some special weeks, we read a section of the Torah relevant to that week as ...


3

B'chedrei Charedim mentions the custom to fast on this day and say the "סדר תיקון ליום ז' אדר" . Just as the death of a tzaddik provides atonement, so does fasting with repentance. The Chevra Kadisha make a festive meal on this day. This is because the members are happy when they have no work to do and Moshe was buried by HKB”H Himself. Yavnenet reports ...


3

When the Talmud (Ta'anit 29a) states that we increase joy when Adar comes in Rashi explains: ימי נסים היו לישראל פורים ופסח They were days of miracles for Israel – Purim and Passover. We can perhaps derive two things from here. First of all, the increased joy may not be limited to Adar; it may extend into Nissan as that is when Passover occurs, or at the ...


2

http://parsha.blogspot.com/2011/03/yu-purim-to-go-5771.html Rabbi Mordechai Willig - "When is a Bar Mitzvah in a Leap Year? The Jewish calendar has 12 months. In a leap year, there are 13 months. Each month has either 29 or 30 days, and the first month is the month of Nissan (Shemos 12:2.) If a boy is born on the 29th of Cheshvan (in a year when ...


2

As explained in this article the ideal Jewish year is actually 13 months (representing a dominance of the Jewish lunar calendar over the non-Jewish solar one) and it will resume this cycle in the days of Moshiach. The leap month is added to provide access to the future redemption even in our times.


2

The short answer: Get ready for Purim, by learning about why Purim is a joyous day and start internalizing those happy lessons. I already wrote here, about 2 reasons why we increase joy in Adar - as a preparation for Purim. To recap: According to the Michtav M'Eliyahu (Vol. 2 pg 125) the happiness we feel on Purim is a הכרת הטוב - recognizing the goodness ...


2

Jewish leap years don't happen every seven or every four -- they happen as part of a nineteen year cycle. For example, see the answers to this question, about how to tell which year is a Jewish leap year -- I really liked this answer to that question :)


2

The mishna is speaking on a halachic basis and not on the actual length. That is, we follow the same halachos except that Taanis Esther and Purim are pushed to the second Adar (which was the original month) in order to be close to Pesach. What I meant was the usage of ain bain in the mishnah as expressed talks about the halachos of the month and does not ...


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