It stands for נפטר בשם טוב - he died with a good name.
The expression is based on Berachot 17a.
רבי יוחנן כי הוה מסיים ספרא דאיוב אמר הכי סוף אדם למות וסוף בהמה לשחיטה והכל למיתה הם עומדים אשרי מי שגדל בתורה ועמלו בתורה ועושה נחת רוח ליוצרו וגדל בשם טוב ונפטר בשם טוב מן העולם
When Rabbi Yoḥanan would conclude the book of Job, he said the following:
From what I understand, your second question is based on the assumption that every column begins what a Vav.
While this seems to be common practice, it is frowned upon by the Poskim who seem to claim that it has no basis in halacha.
See for example the Keseth HaSofer at the end of Ch. 4 - and the footnote there. He claims that the ווי העמודים - as it's ...
If you search Google for "Mrs. * ZT-L", you'll find many instances of this honorific used for couples, and a few for women. Here are some examples of it used for women by various Jewish news or public relations outlets:
BaltimoreJewishLife.com regrets to inform the community of the petirah of Mrs. Chaya Bobrowsky, zt’l, grandmother of Reb Yoni Adler.
There is a sefer called Otzar Roshei Teivos - see it here and there is an older sefer with the same name that I can't find online, but probably your average Jewish book store would be able to get it for you. (Asuming you aren't needing to look these up when near a computer and want a small sefer for reference. The older sefer is smaller than the one I ...
"Im Bat Gilo" -- very roughly, "with a woman suited to his nature."
The Gemara Nedarim 39b says that a hospital visit is especially efficacious for the sick fellow if the visitor is "ben gilo" with respect to the visitee. Rashi (or whatever medieval commentary there pretends to be Rashi) says simply -- "roughly the same age, not a young man visiting an old ...
There are several instances in rabbinic literature where the rabbinic author mentions a deceased female relative and uses the appellation "zatzal". Here are two examples:
R. Moshe Sofer refers to his wife with the appellation "zatzal" in a letter printed in Likutei Teshuvot Chatam Sofer (michtavim siman 9):
ומפני זה גם אנכי לא בקשתי ממנו ...
It's a bracha derivated from Yeshayahu 40:29
[בָּרוּך] נֹתֵ֥ן לַיָּעֵ֖ף כֹּ֑חַ וּלְאֵ֥ין אוֹנִ֖ים עׇצְמָ֥ה יַרְבֶּֽה׃
[Blessed be the one who] gives to the weak strength, and to the one
with no might, should have his might increased.
Our dreidel is of relatively recent vintage and there is no evidence that it existed prior to a few centuries ago. It stood for (before it's being adapted for chanukah)
N = Nisht
nothing to put into the pot
G = Gantz
H = Halbe
Sh = Shtel
Put coins into the pot
One may perhaps still find deep meaning and significance in the dreidel ...
It is אגדות התלמוד, as stated in the Introduction to Dikdukei Sofrim. It is also mentioned in the list of Rashei Teivos in the Oz VeHadar Gemara. The Dikdukei Sofrim describes the book as follows:
ספר אגדות התלמוד הוא קובץ כולל כל האגדות שבש"ס כעין ספר העין יעקב בלי
פירוש רק פירוש מקצת המלות ונתחבר מספרדי אחד טרם שנתחבר העין יעקב ונדפס
באותיות רש"י ...
Perhaps you saw תושלב״ע, rather than תושלכ״ע. As per this handy book of abbreviations, תושלב״ע stands for תם ונשלם, שבח לא-ל בורא עולם, “Whole and complete, praise to G-d, the Creator of the world.”
(The linked book does not include this abbreviation with a כ.)
See Chasam Sofer on Shabbos 147b, http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=21655&st=&pgnum=80.
That the names of the months come from the Babylonians, so what? The name Amraphel comes from Babylonian or some similar language, but it is darshened as having a Hebrew meaning. Same with Sancheriv and lots of other examples.
See p. 322 of this Google book. The Hebrew abbrevaiation is יבדל"א for males and תבדל"א for females.
Loose transliteration - TiBadel/YiBadel Lecha'im Arukhim meaning "May s/he live long, on the contrary".
The alternate version you mentioned (tblch"t) stands for the same, except that Arukhim is switched with Tovim, meaning "good life."
The expression is ...
Abarbanel writes that, because there's a different order for the plagues in Psalms (78? 105? he's unclear), and one might think it's the chronological order (and the order in the Exodus is not, per אין מוקדם ומאוחר בתורה), Rabi Y'huda gave a mnemonic so one knows the chronological order.
h/t Double AA
Following @ Isaac Moses, I searched for Rebbetzen * zt-l and found:
Rebbetzin Kanievsky ZTL in the yeshivaworld.com
Rebbetzin Bluma ZTL in matzav.com
Rebbetzin Vichna Kaplan ztl in linkapeida-judaism.com
Rebbetzin Batsheva Esther Kanievsky, zt”l in tznius.tips …
Rebbetzin Chana Weinberg, zt'l in mekorhabracha.org
It is clear that zt"l is used for ...
It means נלקחה לבית עולמה which means “taken to her eternal home”.
Most abbreviations have the quote marks before the last letter (e.g. שליט"א ביהמ"ק) so נלבע"ה seems better.
נלבע"ה ביום שישי means "taken to her eternal home on Friday". This obviously needs more date information.
Isaac Moses has the answer. It is an honorific title. They are different as they don't apply equally, generally due to grammar considerations.
In your second example, the only difference is grammar (in the linked question I added the one for the male side that wasn't there before). May he/she live.
One exception is נ"י. In that context, as Isaac Moses said,...
Sometimes the name changes because it spells a "bad" idea, but sometimes it's done because the other one is just nicer.
1910 - תר"ע became עת"ר (from Ra - bad)
1912 - תרע"ב became תער"ב (like here) (from Rav - hunger)
1917 - תרע"ז became עזר"ת (like here) (Ezras - help)
1919 - תרע"ט became עטר"ת (like here) (Ateres - crown)
1938 - תרצ"ח became תרח"צ (...
A possible candidate would be the Amora אביי - whose real name was נחמני but was called אביי by the acronym for אֲשֶׁר-בְּךָ יְרֻחַם יָתוֹם. Read more details here.
Unless you want to argue it was Avraham Avinu: אַבְרָהָם, כִּי אַב-הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ