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What does it mean to qualify Judaism with the term “Orthodox” on this site?

I notice that quite a few questions include "Orthodox" in the title. I wonder if people could clarify what it means to be an "Orthodox" Jew relative to another Jew that is not considered "Orthodox".

(I am guessing it is something like the terms "liberal" and "conservative" applied to Christian groups, generally speaking, contrasting those who don't believe the Christian bible describes historical events and understand it more allegorically vs those who do believe it is historical and understand the words more literally)