3 of 4 I clarified the implications of the gates-in-the-firmament worldview, and clarified clarified my refutation to a possible answer.

Is there any evidence of time-zones in Talmud? (Tanaim and Amoraim only)

There are many verses in the Talmud, Midrash and Siddur that state that the sun and moon rise and set through gates in the firmament. This would imply that there are no time-zones. To this world view the sun & the moon rises and sets everywhere in the world at the same time. I'm looking for a refutation.

(Edit: I brought this quote to refute it as an answer, since it is a matter of height: On the verse in Shabbat 118,b: "Said R. Yossi: Might my portion be among those who receive the Shabbat in Tibberias and close it on Zippori", Rashi states on the spot that Tibberias is low-land and Zippori is in the top of a mountain, so the light there is brighter and they wait more in closing the Shabbat.)

Clarification of the question by a moderator: Is there any discussion in the Talmud (Tanaim and Amoraim only) that takes the concept of longitude-based differences in local time into account?