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Questions tagged [targumin]

Referring to the various ancient translations of the Tanach into Aramaic

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Who actually rested on the seventh day? Was it Memra or G-d, blessed be He?

Targum Neofiti states the following: “On the seventh day, the Memra of the LORD completed his work which he had created, and there was Sabbath.” (Genesis 2:3; Targum Neofiti) Memra is what "...
setszu's user avatar
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"land of the Chaldeans" or “fire of the Chaldeans.”?

According to midrash Pirkei De Rabbi Eliezer.26.2 "The second trial was when he was put into prison for ten years—three years in Kuthi, seven years in Budri. After ten years they sent and brought ...
Ariel55's user avatar
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What does "dibbura" mean in Targum Jonathan Exodus 33:11 "the voice of the Word (dibbura) was heard"

Is this "Word", the Memra of God, if yes, why a different word is used instead of Memra? Targum Jonathan Exodus 33:11 And the Lord spake with Moses word for word,- the voice of the Word (...
Michael16's user avatar
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Recitation of Hallel Accompanied by an Aramaic Targum? (in Megilla 21b)

I recently noticed in גמ' מגילה כא עמוד ב a possibility that there was some point where Targum accompanied the public recitation of the Hallel, due to the line: "ובהלל ובמגילה אפילו עשרה קורין ...
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Is it possible we didn’t speak Egyptian while in Egypt?

Our sages say that we didn’t change our language, clothes, and names and in that merit we were redeemed. However didn’t we have to communicate with the Egyptians in their language?
Yehoshua Levy's user avatar
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Was the servant in Isaiah 52 'marred' or 'anointed'? [closed]

Source texts Targum Yonatan (TY) of Isaiah 52:13 identifies the servant as the anointed one: הָא יַצְלַח עַבְדִי מְשִׁיחָא יְרוּם וְיִסְגֵי וְיִתְקוֹף לַחֲדָא (source) Behold, my servant the Messiah ...
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Who did Shalshelet Hakabblah think Onkelos was?

Rabbi Gedalyah Ibn Yechiyah in Shalshelet Hakabbah wrote: "In the fourth year of the previously mentioned emperor [Trayatzo (/Trajan?)]...there was a noble priest called Eccasia [אכקזיה] and in ...
Harel13's user avatar
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Who was Paltiya ben Yehoyada?

In Targum Sheni on Esther 1:3, a man named Paltiya ben Yehoyadah (פלטיא/פלטיה בן יהוידע) is mentioned as someone who argued with Nevuchadnetzar when he came to destroy Yerushalayim: "When ...
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Do any historical Jewish sources mention the translation and production of the Peshitta?

There seems to be much scholarly debate surrounding when the Peshitta was translated from Hebrew to Aramaic, and whether it was the work of Jews or Christians. In light of this, I am wondering if any ...
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Who is the author of Targum Sheini on Megillas Esther?

Who is the author of Targum Sheini on Megillas Esther? When did he live? I've checked several Megillas that have Targum Sheini printed in it and none of them have any details. If anyone can find me ...
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Moshiach and Targum

Please allow me to briefly provide background information. Please also note that Zeke B. and others touch upon similar subject matter but contain distinct questions. The word משיח is rendered by תרגום ...
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Is Magog associated with Germany?

Bereshit 10:2 reads: בְּנֵ֣י יֶ֔פֶת גֹּ֣מֶר וּמָג֔וֹג וּמָדַ֖י וְיָוָ֣ן וְתֻבָ֑ל וּמֶ֖שֶׁךְ וְתִירָֽס׃ Targum Jonathan to this verse reads: בְּנוֹי דְיֶפֶת גוֹמֶר וּמָגוֹג וּמָדַי וְיָוָן וְתוּבָל ...
chessprogrammer's user avatar
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The Matrites and the midrash

In Shmuel 1:10:21 it says: "Then Samuel brought forward the tribe of Benjamin by its clans, and the clan of the Matrites was indicated; and then Saul son of Kish was indicated. But when they ...
Harel13's user avatar
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What is the value of the Septuagint for Judaism?

Translations of the Tanach into Aramaic (targumim) have been accepted as authoritative and shed light on the meaning of some Hebrew words and expressions. They are freely used by commentators. But ...
Maurice Mizrahi's user avatar
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Exodus 20:3 -Deuteronomy 6:4 and 10:17 according to Targum Onkelos

Regarding the following passages of the Torah: "You shall have no other elohim besides Me" (Exodus 20: 3) “Hear, O Israel: HaShem is our Elohim; HaShem is one" (Deuteronomy 6: 4) "...
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Who is Onkelos?

We're all familiar with Onkelos as a convert and a translator. According to Wikipedia, he was a prominent Roman nobleman, the son of a man named Callinicus and the sister of Titus, the Roman emperor. ...
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What does the Targum have against Tattenai?

In Ezra 5-6 appears the governor of Ever Hanahar (the southern side of the Euphrates in this case), Tattenai. Tattenai, upon seeing that the Jews got back to building the Temple after several years of ...
Harel13's user avatar
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Who authored the Targum on Kohelet?

Who authored the Targum on Kohelet? I was unable to find an answer online.
Harel13's user avatar
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Are there targums in other languages besides Aramaic?

There are various definitions of Targum. I'm interested in editions, translations, paraphrases, or retellings of the Tanakh in languages besides Aramaic which incorporate commentary and other ...
sondra.kinsey's user avatar
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Should one say Hashem's name when reading a pasuk in Aramaic?

When doing a pasuk for shnayim mikrah, one may say Hashem's name if he completes the pasuk. However, when reading Onkeles, is one allowed to say Hashem's name? Meaning, does saying a full pasuk in ...
Dov's user avatar
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איצטנא in Targ. Y. Exodus 16

Shalom, first time posting. Can someone help me track down a dictionary entry for the word איצטנא or אצטנא (which is found in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan for Exodus 16:4 and 16:15)? The English ...
Garrett Lucas's user avatar
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1 answer
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Targum of Shem HaShem

Why do we find that there is no differentiation in targum between the The four letter Shem HaShem and Elokeinu; they are both translated as Yud Yud?
sfeksfeika's user avatar
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Question on Targum Yonatan

While looking up info for a different question, I saw that on the pasuk in Bereshit 43:32, Targum Yonatan translates the word "Ha'Ivrim" as "Yehudaee" - יְהוּדָאֵי, while Onkelos ...
Harel13's user avatar
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How much is Rabbi J.D. Bleich's exegesis about Targum Onkelos on Deuteronomy 23:18 really shared in the Jewish tradition?

I'm an Italian Noahide. The issue in question manifests my purely intellectual interest, concerning the Jews and not the Gentiles. In Contemporary Halakhic Problems, Vol II, Part II, Chapter XIII The ...
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Mappik hei in word in Onkelos Devarim 23:11?

The Artscroll Chumash has no mappik hei in the word "mikrei" in the phrase "mikrei leilya" in Devarim 23:11 in Onkelos. However, I have seen some non-Artscroll Chumashim that have the mappik hei in ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Memra fixed in or used as a substitude [closed]

Could someone explain to me as to why most Targums fix in the (Aramaic) word 'Memra into a lot of verses, or use it as a substitude for other words written in the Tenach; what's the idea and meaning ...
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Meaning of Targum's translation of Seraph - קליא

In Parshas Chukkas, God commands Moses to make a Seraph and put in on a standard: וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ Then ...
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Explain usage of "kaved" re Moshe's raising his hands w/ war of Amaleq

In Shemot 17:12 it says: וידי משה כבדים Targum (and Rash"i in a sense) translates כבדים as יקרן, which I gather means "precious". I don't know where or how this translation fits here. Doesn't כבד ...
DanF's user avatar
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5 votes
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What is the oldest extant source which attributes Targum Pseudo-Jonathan to Yonasan Ben Uziel?

There’s an impressive list of proofs that what’s commonly called Targum Yonasan on the Chumash was not, in fact, written by Yonasan Ben Uziel. Where did the rumor start that it was actually written ...
DonielF's user avatar
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Why there's no Targum on Prophets and Writings (נ"ך)?

Allegedly, the Targum on the Torah (Onkelos) was given at Sinai together with the Torah (Meggilah 3a). The Prophets and the Writings were written by the Sages with "Ruach Hakodesh". Were they ...
Al Berko's user avatar
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Why the Targum translates יצר as ברא?

THis question if for people familiar with the Kabbalic concept of אבי"ע. Please compare the Torah and the Targum: "וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים" - "וּבְרָא ...
Al Berko's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
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Why are the Kenites translated as Shalmites?

In the verse where Hashem promises to give Avraham's descendants the land of the 10 Canaanite nations, one is listed as the Kenites (Genesis 15:19): אֶת־הַקֵּינִי֙ וְאֶת־הַקְּנִזִּ֔י וְאֵ֖ת ...
robev's user avatar
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Seeking information on the Targum to Iyov

Tosefta Shabbat 14(13?):2-3 describes a targum to the book of Iyov which was subsequently hidden away. א"ר יוסי מעשה [שהלך ר'] חלפתא אצל רבן גמליאל לטבריא ומצאו שהיה יושב על שולחנו של ר' יוחנן [...
rikitikitembo's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
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Inconsistencies in Targum Onkelos for Bamidbor chapter 26. Explanation please

Rashi on Bamidbor 26(5) remarks on the way the names of the families are written (e.g. חֲנוֹךְ֙ מִשְׁפַּ֣חַת הַֽחֲנֹכִ֔י) as follows: … Therefore, the Holy One, blessed is he, appended His Name to ...
Avrohom Yitzchok's user avatar
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0 answers
67 views

Understanding the parameters of translating the pesukim

In Kiddushin 49a R' Yehuda makes the following statement ר' יהודה אומר המתרגם פסוק כצורתו הרי זה בדאי והמוסיף עליו הרי זה מחרף ומגדף One who translates a verse literally is a liar, one who adds his ...
rikitikitembo's user avatar
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3 answers
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If the Targum on the Torah written by Onkelus was given at Har Sinai, How can Rashi say that he made a mistake?

If the Targum on the Torah written by Onkelus was given at Har Sinai, How can Rashi say that he made a mistake? See Gemara מגילה דף ג ע"א Megilla 3a: ותרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו? והא אמר רב ...
RibbisRabbiAndMore's user avatar
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3 answers
140 views

How does Unkulus translate ריח ניחוח לה ?

I have been trying to understand the various commentaries on ריח ניחוח. I was curious of the Unkulus translation, which I see to be: "לְאִתְקַבָּלָא בְּרַעֲוָא קֳדָם יְיָ" I am curious if anyone has ...
Haim's user avatar
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Why does the Targum switch the order when identifying Memuchan and Hasach?

Targum on Esther identifies Memuchan as Haman (in 1:16): ממוכן הוא המן Memuchan, who is Haman Yet on 4:5, when he identifies Hasach as Daniel, he switches the order: דניאל דמתקרי התך ...
DonielF's user avatar
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5 votes
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Shnayim Mikra Out of Order [duplicate]

When doing shnayim mikra, may one read an entire parsha/aliyah once, then do the targum, then read the pesukim again? Or does it have to be in the order of its name - first shnayim mikra and then ...
eliyahu's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Has anyone posed a theory as to who authored Targum Pseudo-Yonasan?

This answer and this one bring several commentaries who hold that Targum Yonasan was not written by Yonasan ben Uziel. Are there any other people mentioned who may have authored the work? To clarify: ...
DonielF's user avatar
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2 votes
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Controversial commentaries from Targum Yonasan

Someone posted a comment to this question (and have since removed it so I'll maintain their anonymity) and wrote: Indeed it would be quite bizarre to find anyone who does think YbU wrote it. It has ...
robev's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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Looking for an english translation of targum onkeles

I am looking for an english orthodox translation of targum onkeles or, if a translation doesn't exist, maybe a shiur which goes through targum in english on a weekly basis.
javadev's user avatar
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1 answer
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Nefesh tachas Nefesh vs. Nefesh BeNefesh

Exodus 21:23-24 states: וְאִם־אָס֖וֹן יִהְיֶ֑ה וְנָתַתָּ֥ה נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ׃ But if other damage ensues, the penalty shall be life for life, עַ֚יִן תַּ֣חַת עַ֔יִן שֵׁ֖ן תַּ֣חַת ...
robev's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
330 views

Why no targum on Ezra?

Why does the book of Ezra/Nechemia no have Aramaic targum? Divrei Hayamim has targum R Yosef. Daniel is singled out as not having targum in Gemora Megillah because "in it is the end of moshiach&...
Naftali Tzvi's user avatar
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1 vote
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How is "Between the Evenings" Interpreted in the Aramaic Targums?

Shemot 12:6, (Exodus) - והיה לכם למשמרת עד ארבעה עשר יום לחדש הזה ושחטו אתו כל קהל עדת־ישראל בין הערבים [Between the Evenings]׃ Could someone help provide references from the Targums, (Jonathan, ...
elika kohen's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
108 views

Targum's use during second temple period

I'm curious about how the Targum was used. I've been told that Hebrew Scriptures were the holy writ but also see that the Targum was also used. Was the Targums' use isolated to a certain region, a ...
Tonyg's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
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Targum Onkelos on זה קרבן פלוני בן פלוני

At the end of Naso, there is a difference in the Stone chumash's Targum Onkelos (edit: it's the same in the Dirshu chumash) between Nachshon and the other nesiim. For Nachshon, it says: דין ...
Heshy's user avatar
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0 answers
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Last line of Yetziv Pitgam

The Artscroll siddurim (that I've seen, I haven't done a full survey of the siddurim and machzorim) translate the last line of Yetziv Pitgam as a reference to Yonatan ben Uziel. The Artscroll chumash,...
Heshy's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Onkelos Commentary

Rashi on the talmud (kidushin 49a) says the aramaic translation/commentary on the torah was given at sinai, forgotten and brought back by Onkelos. Where did Onkelos obtain the correct text?
ray's user avatar
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In Genesis 6:3, How Should the Context Affect Interpretation of "To Contend/Plead"?

Disclaimer: There are A LOT of pieces to this I don't understand, which is making it very difficult to ask: I would appreciate your suggestions! 1. Question : Genesis 6:3 -... My Spirit will not ...
elika kohen's user avatar