Questions tagged [targumin]

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Are there targums in other languages besides Aramaic?

There are various definitions of Targum. I'm interested in editions, translations, paraphrases, or retellings of the Tanakh in languages besides Aramaic which incorporate commentary and other ...
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Should one say Hashem's name when reading a pasuk in Aramaic?

When doing a pasuk for shnayim mikrah, one may say Hashem's name if he completes the pasuk. However, when reading Onkeles, is one allowed to say Hashem's name? Meaning, does saying a full pasuk in ...
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איצטנא in Targ. Y. Exodus 16

Shalom, first time posting. Can someone help me track down a dictionary entry for the word איצטנא or אצטנא (which is found in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan for Exodus 16:4 and 16:15)? The English ...
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Targum of Shem HaShem

Why do we find that there is no differentiation in targum between the The four letter Shem HaShem and Elokeinu, they are both translated as Yud Yud.
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Question on Targum Yonatan

While looking up info for a different question, I saw that on the pasuk in Bereshit 43:32, Targum Yonatan translates the word "Ha'Ivrim" as "Yehudaee", while Onkelos translates it as "Ivraee". Is ...
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How much is Rabbi J.D. Bleich's exegesis about Targum Onkelos on Deuteronomy 23:18 really shared in the Jewish tradition?

I'm an Italian Noahide. The issue in question manifests my purely intellectual interest, concerning the Jews and not the Gentiles. In Contemporary Halakhic Problems, Vol II, Part II, Chapter XIII The ...
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Mappik hei in word in Onkelos Devarim 23:11?

The Artscroll Chumash has no mappik hei in the word "mikrei" in the phrase "mikrei leilya" in Devarim 23:11 in Onkelos. However, I have seen some non-Artscroll Chumashim that have the mappik hei in ...
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33 views

Memra fixed in or used as a substitude [closed]

Could someone explain to me as to why most Targums fix in the (Aramaic) word 'Memra into a lot of verses, or use it as a substitude for other words written in the Tenach; what's the idea and meaning ...
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Meaning of Targum's translation of Seraph - קליא

In Parshas Chukkas, God commands Moses to make a Seraph and put in on a standard: וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ Then ...
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Explain usage of “kaved” re Moshe's raising his hands w/ war of Amaleq

In Shemot 17:12 it says: וידי משה כבדים Targum (and Rash"i in a sense) translates כבדים as יקרן, which I gather means "precious". I don't know where or how this translation fits here. Doesn't כבד ...
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What is the oldest extant source which attributes Targum Pseudo-Jonathan to Yonasan Ben Uziel?

There’s an impressive list of proofs that what’s commonly called Targum Yonasan on the Chumash was not, in fact, written by Yonasan Ben Uziel. Where did the rumor start that it was actually written ...
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Why there's no Targum on Prophets and Writings (נ"ך)?

Allegedly, the Targum on the Torah (Onkelos) was given at Sinai together with the Torah (Meggilah 3a). The Prophets and the Writings were written by the Sages with "Ruach Hakodesh". Were they ...
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48 views

Why the Targum translates יצר as ברא?

THis question if for people familiar with the Kabbalic concept of אבי"ע. Please compare the Torah and the Targum: "וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים" - "וּבְרָא ...
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Why are the Kenites translated as Shalmites?

In the verse where Hashem promises to give Avraham's descendants the land of the 10 Canaanite nations, one is listed as the Kenites (Genesis 15:19): אֶת־הַקֵּינִי֙ וְאֶת־הַקְּנִזִּ֔י וְאֵ֖ת ...
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Seeking information on the Targum to Iyov

Tosefta Shabbat 14(13?):2-3 describes a targum to the book of Iyov which was subsequently hidden away. א"ר יוסי מעשה [שהלך ר'] חלפתא אצל רבן גמליאל לטבריא ומצאו שהיה יושב על שולחנו של ר' יוחנן [בן ...
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Inconsistencies in Targum Onkelos for Bamidbor chapter 26. Explanation please

Rashi on Bamidbor 26(5) remarks on the way the names of the families are written (e.g. חֲנוֹךְ֙ מִשְׁפַּ֣חַת הַֽחֲנֹכִ֔י) as follows: … Therefore, the Holy One, blessed is he, appended His Name to ...
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Understanding the parameters of translating the pesukim

In Kiddushin 49a R' Yehuda makes the following statement ר' יהודה אומר המתרגם פסוק כצורתו הרי זה בדאי והמוסיף עליו הרי זה מחרף ומגדף One who translates a verse literally is a liar, one who adds his ...
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If the Targum on the Torah written by Onkelus was given at Har Sinai, How can Rashi say that he made a mistake?

If the Targum on the Torah written by Onkelus was given at Har Sinai, How can Rashi say that he made a mistake? See Gemara מגילה דף ג ע"א Megilla 3a: ותרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו? והא אמר רב ...
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How does Unkulus translate ריח ניחוח לה ?

I have been trying to understand the various commentaries on ריח ניחוח. I was curious of the Unkulus translation, which I see to be: "לְאִתְקַבָּלָא בְּרַעֲוָא קֳדָם יְיָ" I am curious if anyone has ...
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Why does the Targum switch the order when identifying Memuchan and Hasach?

Targum on Esther identifies Memuchan as Haman (in 1:16): ממוכן הוא המן Memuchan, who is Haman Yet on 4:5, when he identifies Hasach as Daniel, he switches the order: דניאל דמתקרי התך ...
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Shnayim Mikra Out of Order [duplicate]

When doing shnayim mikra, may one read an entire parsha/aliyah once, then do the targum, then read the pesukim again? Or does it have to be in the order of its name - first shnayim mikra and then ...
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Has anyone posed a theory as to who authored Targum Pseudo-Yonasan?

This answer and this one bring several commentaries who hold that Targum Yonasan was not written by Yonasan ben Uziel. Are there any other people mentioned who may have authored the work? To clarify: ...
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219 views

Controversial commentaries from Targum Yonasan

Someone posted a comment to this question (and have since removed it so I'll maintain their anonymity) and wrote: Indeed it would be quite bizarre to find anyone who does think YbU wrote it. It has ...
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Looking for an english translation of targum onkeles

I am looking for an english orthodox translation of targum onkeles or, if a translation doesn't exist, maybe a shiur which goes through targum in english on a weekly basis.
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Nefesh tachas Nefesh vs. Nefesh BeNefesh

Exodus 21:23-24 states: וְאִם־אָס֖וֹן יִהְיֶ֑ה וְנָתַתָּ֥ה נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ׃ But if other damage ensues, the penalty shall be life for life, עַ֚יִן תַּ֣חַת עַ֔יִן שֵׁ֖ן תַּ֣חַת ...
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why no targum on Ezra?

Why does the book of Ezra/Nechemia no have Aramaic targum? Divrei Hayamim has targum R Yosef. Daniel is singled out as not having targum in Gemora Megillah because "in it is the end of moshiach". ...
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How is “Between the Evenings” Interpreted in the Aramaic Targums?

Shemot 12:6, (Exodus) - והיה לכם למשמרת עד ארבעה עשר יום לחדש הזה ושחטו אתו כל קהל עדת־ישראל בין הערבים [Between the Evenings]׃ Could someone help provide references from the Targums, (Jonathan, ...
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Targum's use during second temple period

I'm curious about how the Targum was used. I've been told that Hebrew Scriptures were the holy writ but also see that the Targum was also used. Was the Targums' use isolated to a certain region, a ...
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Targum Onkelos on זה קרבן פלוני בן פלוני

At the end of Naso, there is a difference in the Stone chumash's Targum Onkelos (edit: it's the same in the Dirshu chumash) between Nachshon and the other nesiim. For Nachshon, it says: דין ...
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Last line of Yetziv Pitgam

The Artscroll siddurim (that I've seen, I haven't done a full survey of the siddurim and machzorim) translate the last line of Yetziv Pitgam as a reference to Yonatan ben Uziel. The Artscroll chumash,...
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Onkelos Commentary

Rashi on the talmud (kidushin 49a) says the aramaic translation/commentary on the torah was given at sinai, forgotten and brought back by Onkelos. Where did Onkelos obtain the correct text?
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In Genesis 6:3, How Should the Context Affect Interpretation of “To Contend/Plead”?

Disclaimer: There are A LOT of pieces to this I don't understand, which is making it very difficult to ask: I would appreciate your suggestions! 1. Question : Genesis 6:3 -... My Spirit will not ...
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Why do we recite Targum translation for 3 verses in “Kedusha Desidra”?

Following Shacharit Shemonah Esreh, during Shabbat Mincha, and after the Amidah on Motza'ei Shabbat, קדושה דסדרא also called, ובא לציון is said. The beginning contains 3 verses, 2 of which are part of ...
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Who wrote the Aramaic translation for Psalms and when?

The Talmud in Migila specifies that no translation (Targum) for the Ktuvim was written since although Rabbi Yonatan Ben Uziel wanted to, he was told not to do so: עוד ביקש לגלות תרגום של כתובים ...
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Logic behind Targum of בא

Targum Onklus Will either use the word אתא or על for the word בא. What is the logic behind his choice? Of interest is the times where a variant text is brought, for instance in parshas Vayeishev 30 ...
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What's “פון” doing in the targum to Ex. 3:20?

In Onkelus, "פון" indicates the subjunctive mood. For example, in Vayetze 31:27, Lavan seems to be telling Yaakov, "Why did you conceal yourself to flee? And you robbed me! And you didn't tell me; and ...
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Targum Pseudo-Jonathan in Rabbinic Literature

The Gemara Megillah (3a) implies that Onkelos translated just the Chumash, whereas Yonattan ben Uzziel translated just Nevi'im: וא''ר ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא תרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו ...
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Targum on Obadiah 1:3 a Reference to Rome?

The prophecy of Obadiah concerns the fate of Edom. Obadiah 1:3 reads, זְדוֹן לִבְּךָ הִשִּׁיאֶךָ, שֹׁכְנִי בְחַגְוֵי-סֶלַע מְרוֹם שִׁבְתּוֹ; אֹמֵר בְּלִבּוֹ, מִי יוֹרִדֵנִי אָרֶץ. The pride of thy ...
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Trying to understand Targum Onkelos's rendering of סביב

It seems every instance we have the word סביב in the Torah, Targum Onkelos translates it as סחור סחור, a doubling of the word which I would have assumed would suffice in single format. See for ...
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Onkelos's various translations of 'ivri.'

I have noticed that Onkelos switches his translation of ivri from sefer Bereishis where he exclusively translates ivri as a variation on עבראי\עברי and throughout the rest of chumash where he uses ...
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Understanding Megillah 3a

The gemarah megillah 3a expalians that were it not for the targum we would not understand the verse in Zecharya 12:11 which says there on that day the mourning in Jerusalem was like the mourning of ...
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Translation/Commentary on Targum

I'm looking for a translation or commentary on Targum Onkelos, especially for the non-literal parts (such as on Birkas Yaakov and Shiras Hayam). It can be in either Hebrew or English.
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Why is “בבהילו יצאנו ממצרים” a mix of two paraphrases?

Included in the Rambam's hagada text is the line בבהילו יצאנו ממצרים‎, replicated in some modern hagados. This line blends near-quotations of D'varim 16:3, כִּי בְחִפָּזוֹן יָצָאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ ...
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How does one read words with a “yud” in Targum?

While doing "Shenayim Mikrah" I encounter many words that have a "yud" as second to last letter. For example the word "cities" is "קִרְוָיךְ". Is the yud pronounced during reading? I.e. is this read ...
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Eicha 2:5 Targum - seemingly out of order

Eicha 2:5 Targum translates תאניה ואניה as אבילותא ואנינותא. Does not Aninus come before Aveilus? How can this targum be explained?
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Is the Targum Neofiti a valid source of translation?

Targum Neofiti is believed by scholars to be an ancient translation of the torah. Does the average orthodox rabbi consider it as a valid and reliable resource to translate or explain a word, the way ...
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Targum of Elokim

The Targum uses yod yod for both Hashem and Elokim unless both are mentioned together. Should the yod yod be understood generically and pronounced Elokim when the chumash says Elokim, or should it be ...
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134 views

Where did the well come from?

Numbers 21:16, on the topic of the "Wars of God", after describing the flow of the streams of Arnon toward the borders of Moab says: וּמִשָּׁם בְּאֵרָה הִוא הַבְּאֵר אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה ...
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218 views

Do you have to read the Targum of words that are repeated in the same sedrah?

According to the view (quoted here) that the reading of the Targum in shnaim mikro v’echod targum is to add layers of explanation to every word could one fulfil the mitzvo by reading the Targum ...
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Onkelos, Anthropomorphism, and The Exodus

Onkelos the Convert is said by the Talmud to be the author of the official aramaic translation of the Pentateuch. Rashi and Maimonides understand Onkelos as having a tendency to interpret physical ...