Questions tagged [targumin]

Referring to the various ancient translations of the Tanach into Aramaic

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Seeking information on the Targum to Iyov

Tosefta Shabbat 14(13?):2-3 describes a targum to the book of Iyov which was subsequently hidden away. א"ר יוסי מעשה [שהלך ר'] חלפתא אצל רבן גמליאל לטבריא ומצאו שהיה יושב על שולחנו של ר' יוחנן [...
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Inconsistencies in Targum Onkelos for Bamidbor chapter 26. Explanation please

Rashi on Bamidbor 26(5) remarks on the way the names of the families are written (e.g. חֲנוֹךְ֙ מִשְׁפַּ֣חַת הַֽחֲנֹכִ֔י) as follows: … Therefore, the Holy One, blessed is he, appended His Name to ...
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Who authored the Targum on Kohelet?

Who authored the Targum on Kohelet? I was unable to find an answer online.
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275 views

Is the Targum Neofiti a valid source of translation?

Targum Neofiti is believed by scholars to be an ancient translation of the torah. Does the average orthodox rabbi consider it as a valid and reliable resource to translate or explain a word, the way ...
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397 views

Was the servant in Isaiah 52 'marred' or 'anointed'? [closed]

Source texts Targum Yonatan (TY) of Isaiah 52:13 identifies the servant as the anointed one: הָא יַצְלַח עַבְדִי מְשִׁיחָא יְרוּם וְיִסְגֵי וְיִתְקוֹף לַחֲדָא (source) Behold, my servant the Messiah ...
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Who did Shalshelet Hakabblah think Onkelos was?

Rabbi Gedalyah Ibn Yechiyah in Shalshelet Hakabbah wrote: "In the fourth year of the previously mentioned emperor [Trayatzo (/Trajan?)]...there was a noble priest called Eccasia [אכקזיה] and in ...
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Question on Targum Yonatan

While looking up info for a different question, I saw that on the pasuk in Bereshit 43:32, Targum Yonatan translates the word "Ha'Ivrim" as "Yehudaee" - יְהוּדָאֵי, while Onkelos ...
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Who was Paltiya ben Yehoyada?

In Targum Sheni on Esther 1:3, a man named Paltiya ben Yehoyadah (פלטיא/פלטיה בן יהוידע) is mentioned as someone who argued with Nevuchadnetzar when he came to destroy Yerushalayim: "When ...
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Has anyone posed a theory as to who authored Targum Pseudo-Yonasan?

This answer and this one bring several commentaries who hold that Targum Yonasan was not written by Yonasan ben Uziel. Are there any other people mentioned who may have authored the work? To clarify: ...
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Targum of Shem HaShem

Why do we find that there is no differentiation in targum between the The four letter Shem HaShem and Elokeinu; they are both translated as Yud Yud?
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Targum to Ex. 32:27

Why do the targumim to Sh'mos 32:27 ("וְהִרְגוּ אִישׁ אֶת אָחִיו וְאִישׁ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת קְרֹבוֹ") use g'var twice and then enash? For example, Onkelos: וקטולו גבר ית אחוהי וגבר ית ...
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Do any historical Jewish sources mention the translation and production of the Peshitta?

There seems to be much scholarly debate surrounding when the Peshitta was translated from Hebrew to Aramaic, and whether it was the work of Jews or Christians. In light of this, I am wondering if any ...
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Who is the author of Targum Sheini on Megillas Esther?

Who is the author of Targum Sheini on Megillas Esther? When did he live? I've checked several Megillas that have Targum Sheini printed in it and none of them have any details. If anyone can find me ...
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Moshiach and Targum

Please allow me to briefly provide background information. Please also note that Zeke B. and others touch upon similar subject matter but contain distinct questions. The word משיח is rendered by תרגום ...
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Why no targum on Ezra?

Why does the book of Ezra/Nechemia no have Aramaic targum? Divrei Hayamim has targum R Yosef. Daniel is singled out as not having targum in Gemora Megillah because "in it is the end of moshiach&...
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Is Magog associated with Germany?

Bereshit 10:2 reads: בְּנֵ֣י יֶ֔פֶת גֹּ֣מֶר וּמָג֔וֹג וּמָדַ֖י וְיָוָ֣ן וְתֻבָ֑ל וּמֶ֖שֶׁךְ וְתִירָֽס׃ Targum Jonathan to this verse reads: בְּנוֹי דְיֶפֶת גוֹמֶר וּמָגוֹג וּמָדַי וְיָוָן וְתוּבָל ...
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The Matrites and the midrash

In Shmuel 1:10:21 it says: "Then Samuel brought forward the tribe of Benjamin by its clans, and the clan of the Matrites was indicated; and then Saul son of Kish was indicated. But when they ...
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What is the value of the Septuagint for Judaism?

Translations of the Tanach into Aramaic (targumim) have been accepted as authoritative and shed light on the meaning of some Hebrew words and expressions. They are freely used by commentators. But ...
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Why does the Targum switch the order when identifying Memuchan and Hasach?

Targum on Esther identifies Memuchan as Haman (in 1:16): ממוכן הוא המן Memuchan, who is Haman Yet on 4:5, when he identifies Hasach as Daniel, he switches the order: דניאל דמתקרי התך ...
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Exodus 20:3 -Deuteronomy 6:4 and 10:17 according to Targum Onkelos

Regarding the following passages of the Torah: "You shall have no other elohim besides Me" (Exodus 20: 3) “Hear, O Israel: HaShem is our Elohim; HaShem is one" (Deuteronomy 6: 4) "...
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What does the Targum have against Tattenai?

In Ezra 5-6 appears the governor of Ever Hanahar (the southern side of the Euphrates in this case), Tattenai. Tattenai, upon seeing that the Jews got back to building the Temple after several years of ...
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Who is Onkelos?

We're all familiar with Onkelos as a convert and a translator. According to Wikipedia, he was a prominent Roman nobleman, the son of a man named Callinicus and the sister of Titus, the Roman emperor. ...
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Are there targums in other languages besides Aramaic?

There are various definitions of Targum. I'm interested in editions, translations, paraphrases, or retellings of the Tanakh in languages besides Aramaic which incorporate commentary and other ...
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Controversial commentaries from Targum Yonasan

Someone posted a comment to this question (and have since removed it so I'll maintain their anonymity) and wrote: Indeed it would be quite bizarre to find anyone who does think YbU wrote it. It has ...
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Should one say Hashem's name when reading a pasuk in Aramaic?

When doing a pasuk for shnayim mikrah, one may say Hashem's name if he completes the pasuk. However, when reading Onkeles, is one allowed to say Hashem's name? Meaning, does saying a full pasuk in ...
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Looking for an english translation of targum onkeles

I am looking for an english orthodox translation of targum onkeles or, if a translation doesn't exist, maybe a shiur which goes through targum in english on a weekly basis.
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Targum on Obadiah 1:3 a Reference to Rome?

The prophecy of Obadiah concerns the fate of Edom. Obadiah 1:3 reads, זְדוֹן לִבְּךָ הִשִּׁיאֶךָ, שֹׁכְנִי בְחַגְוֵי-סֶלַע מְרוֹם שִׁבְתּוֹ; אֹמֵר בְּלִבּוֹ, מִי יוֹרִדֵנִי אָרֶץ. The pride of thy ...
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The Fourth Exile, Persia or Rome?

When Avraham experiences a vision of 'fear, darkness, great, descending upon him', (Gen 15:12), the Midrash says that these four words refer to the 4 exiles. Fear is Babylon, darkness is Medea, great ...
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איצטנא in Targ. Y. Exodus 16

Shalom, first time posting. Can someone help me track down a dictionary entry for the word איצטנא or אצטנא (which is found in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan for Exodus 16:4 and 16:15)? The English ...
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How much is Rabbi J.D. Bleich's exegesis about Targum Onkelos on Deuteronomy 23:18 really shared in the Jewish tradition?

I'm an Italian Noahide. The issue in question manifests my purely intellectual interest, concerning the Jews and not the Gentiles. In Contemporary Halakhic Problems, Vol II, Part II, Chapter XIII The ...
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Mappik hei in word in Onkelos Devarim 23:11?

The Artscroll Chumash has no mappik hei in the word "mikrei" in the phrase "mikrei leilya" in Devarim 23:11 in Onkelos. However, I have seen some non-Artscroll Chumashim that have the mappik hei in ...
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Memra fixed in or used as a substitude [closed]

Could someone explain to me as to why most Targums fix in the (Aramaic) word 'Memra into a lot of verses, or use it as a substitude for other words written in the Tenach; what's the idea and meaning ...
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Meaning of Targum's translation of Seraph - קליא

In Parshas Chukkas, God commands Moses to make a Seraph and put in on a standard: וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ Then ...
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Explain usage of "kaved" re Moshe's raising his hands w/ war of Amaleq

In Shemot 17:12 it says: וידי משה כבדים Targum (and Rash"i in a sense) translates כבדים as יקרן, which I gather means "precious". I don't know where or how this translation fits here. Doesn't כבד ...
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Targum's use during second temple period

I'm curious about how the Targum was used. I've been told that Hebrew Scriptures were the holy writ but also see that the Targum was also used. Was the Targums' use isolated to a certain region, a ...
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What is the oldest extant source which attributes Targum Pseudo-Jonathan to Yonasan Ben Uziel?

There’s an impressive list of proofs that what’s commonly called Targum Yonasan on the Chumash was not, in fact, written by Yonasan Ben Uziel. Where did the rumor start that it was actually written ...
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Why there's no Targum on Prophets and Writings (נ"ך)?

Allegedly, the Targum on the Torah (Onkelos) was given at Sinai together with the Torah (Meggilah 3a). The Prophets and the Writings were written by the Sages with "Ruach Hakodesh". Were they ...
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Why the Targum translates יצר as ברא?

THis question if for people familiar with the Kabbalic concept of אבי"ע. Please compare the Torah and the Targum: "וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים" - "וּבְרָא ...
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Trying to understand Targum Onkelos's rendering of סביב

It seems every instance we have the word סביב in the Torah, Targum Onkelos translates it as סחור סחור, a doubling of the word which I would have assumed would suffice in single format. See for ...
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Why are the Kenites translated as Shalmites?

In the verse where Hashem promises to give Avraham's descendants the land of the 10 Canaanite nations, one is listed as the Kenites (Genesis 15:19): אֶת־הַקֵּינִי֙ וְאֶת־הַקְּנִזִּ֔י וְאֵ֖ת ...
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Shnayim Mikra Out of Order [duplicate]

When doing shnayim mikra, may one read an entire parsha/aliyah once, then do the targum, then read the pesukim again? Or does it have to be in the order of its name - first shnayim mikra and then ...
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Who wrote the Aramaic translation for Psalms and when?

The Talmud in Migila specifies that no translation (Targum) for the Ktuvim was written since although Rabbi Yonatan Ben Uziel wanted to, he was told not to do so: עוד ביקש לגלות תרגום של כתובים ...
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Understanding the parameters of translating the pesukim

In Kiddushin 49a R' Yehuda makes the following statement ר' יהודה אומר המתרגם פסוק כצורתו הרי זה בדאי והמוסיף עליו הרי זה מחרף ומגדף One who translates a verse literally is a liar, one who adds his ...
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2answers
307 views

Rabbinic understandings of non-Divine origin of Onqelos

Shavua' tov all, A question from a friend that I thought I would post here regarding the origin of Onqelos. It seems fair to say that the classical rabbinic understanding is that the Aramaic ...
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If the Targum on the Torah written by Onkelus was given at Har Sinai, How can Rashi say that he made a mistake?

If the Targum on the Torah written by Onkelus was given at Har Sinai, How can Rashi say that he made a mistake? See Gemara מגילה דף ג ע"א Megilla 3a: ותרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו? והא אמר רב ...
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How does Unkulus translate ריח ניחוח לה ?

I have been trying to understand the various commentaries on ריח ניחוח. I was curious of the Unkulus translation, which I see to be: "לְאִתְקַבָּלָא בְּרַעֲוָא קֳדָם יְיָ" I am curious if anyone has ...
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442 views

Targum Pseudo-Jonathan in Rabbinic Literature

The Gemara Megillah (3a) implies that Onkelos translated just the Chumash, whereas Yonattan ben Uzziel translated just Nevi'im: וא''ר ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא תרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו ...
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390 views

What does the aramaic "pon" mean?

Once in a while, Onkelos will throw in the word pon (פּוֹן) that doesn't directly translate from the Hebrew. Avimelech to Yitzchak: k'z'eir pon shachiv d'm'yached b'ama (Toldos 26:10) Lavan to Yaakov:...
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Understanding Megillah 3a

The gemarah megillah 3a expalians that were it not for the targum we would not understand the verse in Zecharya 12:11 which says there on that day the mourning in Jerusalem was like the mourning of ...
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1answer
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Nefesh tachas Nefesh vs. Nefesh BeNefesh

Exodus 21:23-24 states: וְאִם־אָס֖וֹן יִהְיֶ֑ה וְנָתַתָּ֥ה נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ׃ But if other damage ensues, the penalty shall be life for life, עַ֚יִן תַּ֣חַת עַ֔יִן שֵׁ֖ן תַּ֣חַת ...