Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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4
votes
0answers
87 views

No Dagesh for Yud, Lamed, Mem with Shva after Hei HaYdiah [closed]

In general, when a word is prefixed by Hei HaYdiah (the definite article), the following consonant receives a Dagesh Hazak (gemination). Clear exceptions are when that consonant is a guttural and ...
-2
votes
1answer
86 views

To bend or graft; did the Rashbam made a mistake?

According to Rashbam (on the parellel verse 28:14) the meaning that comes in mind regards the word "Ve'nivrechu" in Genesis 12:3 is 'to graft' a branch. But then I looked up the possible sources (...
5
votes
1answer
165 views

When did siddurim first start showing sheva na - nach differently?

Some (most?) widely used siddurim today give the reader some pronunciation information that is not obvious in standard Hebrew lettering: when a sheva is pronounced (e.g., by making the sheva na bold, ...
1
vote
1answer
250 views

articulation of resh with dagesh

It is well known that ר not lend itself to gemination. It never has virtual gemination. As for the full gemination indicated by the dagesh, ר allows it, but only very rarely, and never after the ...
2
votes
2answers
229 views

Why is it a sheva na in ha-leviyim?

Before the Psalm for the day at the end of Shacharis each day, we say a sentence, "Today is the Xth day of the week..." In that sentence is a word for Levites, and that word in Hebrew has a sheva ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Invalid verb conjugation מצות יאכל

In Shemos 13:7, the verse uses the passive form מצות יאכל, where the subject is feminine plural but the verb is masculine singular. A similar occurrence is in Pinchas for Pesach korbanos (Bamidbar 28:...
1
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0answers
65 views

Practical suggestions for choosing between different nuschaot in the Torah

Unfortunately, it's not hard to find places in the Torah, and even more so in Nach, where we have a doubt about either the trop or the nekudot. (Or, more rarely, letters, but those are generally the ...
1
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0answers
80 views

Tzerei vs. Sh'va vs. Segol

Are there examples of words where pronouncing a sh'va as a tzeirei or a segol (or pronouncing a tzeirei as a sh'va or a segol or a segol as a sh'va or a tzeire) creates a different meaning? I'm ...
2
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0answers
26 views

When does the Mishna use the word “Hem” and when does it use the word “Hen”?

I always assumed that Hem and Hen are masculine and feminine, but I see that the Mishna uses them quite interchangeably: "שלשה תריסין הם" - Masculine with Hem "שלש עגלות הם" - Feminine with Hem "...
2
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0answers
43 views

ידע תדע what kind of knowing is this?

In a couple of verses like Genesis 15:13, 1 Samuel 28:1, 1 Kings 2:37, 2:42 and Proverbs 27:23 we find two verbal repetition: 'ידע תדע' quite literally translated as 'knowing you will know'. I know ...
4
votes
3answers
115 views

Kohelet 12:13 what does kol ha'adam mean

Looking at the verse of Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) 12:13 I found a couple of translations for כי-זה כל-האדם : ...for this is the whole of man ... for these are for all of mankind ... for these applies ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Question of a formulaic irregularity in the korbanos reading of the morning service

In the korbanos reading of the morning service, they all begin with vayomer h' el moshe l'emor... except the ketores which skips l'emor, saying only vayomer h' el moshe kach lcha... why?
4
votes
2answers
120 views

A grammatical question about Shabbes davening

I recently noticed that in my siddur (Siddur Vilna), in the fourth berakha of the Shabbes davening (או"א רצה במנוחתינו...), there's a pronominal suffix near the conclusion that changes depending on ...
1
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2answers
68 views

What is the difference in meaning / nuance between ריב and תלונה?

We frequently see some form of ריב and /or תלונה used when B'nai Yisra'el complains with Moshe and Aharon. Examples: Shemot 15:24 וילונו Shemot 16:2 וילונו Shemot 17:2 וירב Shemot 17:3 וילן My ...
4
votes
0answers
86 views

Another doubt in Zachor?

Many shuls read the last pasuk of Parshat Zachor twice, once with "zeicher" and once with "zecher", based on a (possibly not so valid) doubt in how the word should be read. The Tikkun Simanim brings ...
3
votes
2answers
176 views

new artscroll siddur dikduk questions

In the new Artscroll siddurim (ie. the "WASSERMAN EDITION OF THE NEW, EXPANDED ARTSCROLL SIDDUR"), there are a few changes from the older Artscroll siddurim. In the new siddurim, the word "rivah" in ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

Aiyn Hara vs. Eiyn Hara [closed]

The expression עין הרע is a case of סמיכות. It seems we often tend to (if not always) pronounce the noun עין with a patach beneath the ע and chirik beneath the י. Shouldn't it be pronounced as eiyn ...
2
votes
3answers
55 views

If שכינה is לשון נקבה then why ותראהו?

According to rashi's drash explanation (taken from :סוטה יב) of שמות ב:ו ד״ה ותפתח ותראהו how can השכינה, a grammatically feminine word, refer back to the masculine objective suffix הו-? Perhaps ...
5
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0answers
151 views

Why does Rashi call tzeirei and segol “kamatz katan” and “patach katan”

Rashi often refers to tzeirei as "kamatz katan" and segol as "patach katan". Why? In what sense are they smaller versions of kamatz and patach? I understand that kamatz and tzeirei are תנועות ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

What is the function of את here?

What is the function of את in Shemot 21:28 when it says וכי-יגח שור את-איש או את-אשה ומת? את here is not marking definite direct objects but indefinite direct objects as there are no markings of ...
6
votes
1answer
44 views

Hakeves echad and not hakeves haechad?

On Rosh Chodesh we read in Bamidbar 28:4"et hakeves echad..." Shouldn't the grammar dictate there be a definite article on adjectives that modify definite nouns? Later in the pasuk it says "hakeves ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

דבתם רעה or דבתם הרעה?

On Berayshit 37:2, the Torah says: "וַיָּבֵא יוֹסֵף אֶת־דִּבָּתָם רָעָה אֶל־אֲבִיהֶם" According to proper grammar, shouldn't it have said dibbatam ha'ra'ah since ra'ah is modifying a definite noun?...
3
votes
3answers
394 views

Why is the second kaf hard in שעשה לי כל צרכי?

In the daily berakhah for having shoes, שעשה לי כל צרכי, why is the letter kaf pointed with a dagesh kal? I.e., why is the word pronounced tzorki rather than tzorkhi? My sense is that similar forms of ...
2
votes
1answer
143 views

Can a meteg make a difference in meaning?

I have a book called ספר הקריאה השלם: חלק ג, פיתוחי חותם. I bought it from my shul and don't have any other chalakim or further information on it. It's not a kids' book, but it looks like one (pages ...
4
votes
1answer
111 views

Difference between וַהֲשִׁיבְךָ and וֶהֱשׁיבְךָ

Bereishit 40:13 בְּע֣וֹד ׀ שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֗ים יִשָּׂ֤א פַרְעֹה֙ אֶת־רֹאשֶׁ֔ךָ וַהֲשִֽׁיבְךָ֖ עַל־כַּנֶּ֑ךָ וְנָֽתַתָּ֤ כוֹס־פַּרְעֹה֙ בְּיָד֔וֹ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט֙ הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיִ֖יתָ ...
0
votes
2answers
121 views

Unusual format of plural fem. 2nd person pronoun in Gen. 31:6

The beginning of Breishit 31:6 uses the word ואתנה for the 2nd person Hebrew plural pronoun instead of the more common form אתן. This is the only time I have seen this form used in the Torah (I haven'...
-1
votes
2answers
248 views

B'rashith (Genesis) 27.28 - the Hebrew rule of grammar, is it a vav sheva or a vav patach?

is the Hebrew rule of grammar always consistent when it lays down the rule that "no two shevas begin a word?" For example, Brashith (Genesis) 27.28 uses the vav sheva followed by a yud sheva. Shouldn'...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Why is there a grammar change from singular to plural in Breishit (Gen.) 19:34?

Context: Lot's oldest daughter suggests to her younger sister that they intoxicate their father and have intercourse with him. My translation of Breishit 19:34: "It was the morrow. The older said ...
7
votes
1answer
87 views

Is there a non-grammatical reason why יִשְמָעֵאל is written with the tzeirei under the ayin and not under the aleph?

The word יִשְמָעֵאל is written with the tzeirei under the ayin and not under the aleph (like this: יִשְמָעאֵל). I think that the suffix אֵל refers to Hashem and therefore would have expected the ...
1
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0answers
80 views

What is the origin of the dash/hypen in the Torah?

The Torah as it is published in books (that I have seen) is written with hyphens. E.g. Lech-lecha (i.e. the dash between the two words). What are their origin? Given with the letters of the Torah? ...
2
votes
1answer
100 views

וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ vs וישתחו

What is the explanation and reason for the kri-ksiv וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ vs וישתחו in בראשית פרק כ''ז פסוק כ''ט? Please explain how both the kri and the ksiv fit in the pasuk.
0
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0answers
37 views

To form, different roots

Are the roots צור (to form, shape, fashion) יצר (to create) and צר (to shape, form, model) related or do they just share similar meanings? Are there any commentaries, scriptures, that connect these ...
3
votes
0answers
85 views

beyom or bayom hashemini Chag Haatzeret hazeh?

Every siddur, machzor, and bentcher that I've noticed writes בְּיוֹם, with a sheva, and then divides up into different cases (חג המצות/חג השבועות/חג הסוכות/השמיני חג העצרת, with additional options in ...
1
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0answers
22 views

To atone or to cover ? [duplicate]

The root for the word Kippur as in Yom Kippur is כפר but what does it mean linguistically or commentarial? It's explained that the root mean 'to cover' or 'to atone'? Where does this difference ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

What exactly is קאתי in אימתי קאתי מר?

The phrase אימתי קאתי מר in the Chassidic song is usually translated "When will the Master come?" How exactly is the form קאתי derived? If I understand correctly, it must be a verbal form (whether ...
3
votes
1answer
208 views

Is a vav before a verb in the Chumash always a tense changer?

I know that the vav before a noun can be a vav hachibur (cf http://www.torahmusings.com/2012/12/on-the-prefix-vav/) but in front of a verb it changes tense (past to future and vice versa) and may or ...
1
vote
1answer
113 views

Trop of את ה____ האלה

The first pasuk of Ekev, Devarim 7:12: וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ עֵ֣קֶב תִּשְׁמְע֗וּן אֵ֤ת הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים֙ הָאֵ֔לֶּה וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֥ם וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם וְשָׁמַר֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ לְךָ֗ אֶֽת־הַבְּרִית֙ וְאֶת־...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Elo-aH - Feminine or not?

I had been taught that Elokim is a unification of Divine Feminine and Masculine from the root Elo-aH. Is this the case or is the Name Elo-aH also masculine?
5
votes
2answers
294 views

Titkabbel vs. Titkabbal

In קדיש תתקבל, most Ashkenazi siddurim I've seen say "תִּתְקַבַּל." ArtScroll, however, has "תִּתְקַבֵּל." Why did this difference arise?
3
votes
1answer
109 views

Why singular “תַּמְעִיט” in Num. 33:54?

Mas'e 33:50–56: God said to Moses…: Speak to the Jews, and tell them: When you[plural] cross the Jordan to Canaan land: you[plural] shall get rid of the land'...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Spelling of צֹנַאֲכֶם

In Parshas Mattos, 32:24, there is an unusual construction for the plural possessive "your sheep" - בְּנוּ-לָכֶם עָרִים לְטַפְּכֶם, וּגְדֵרֹת לְצֹנַאֲכֶם; וְהַיֹּצֵא מִפִּיכֶם, תַּעֲשׂוּ. What is ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

Difference between munach legarmei revii and gershayim revii

Is there any grammatical difference between a munach legarmei before a revii and a gershayim before a revii? For example, the first words in Bamidbar 16:17 and 16:18 are very similar (וקחו/ויקחו איש ...
10
votes
2answers
141 views

Leshabeichacha and loseis/latet shevach

Towards the beginning of the נוסח אשכנז version of davening, in the section beginning לעולם יהא אדם ירא שמים, we say as follows: לפיכך אנחנו חייבים להודות לך ולשבחך ולפארך ולברך ולקדש ולתת שבח ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

Why is it always YHVH Elohim and not in the reverse order?

If I'm correct within the Tenach it's always the term Elohim following the term YHVH. You always read verses and phrases stating: 'YHVH Elohim' and never 'Elohim YHVH'. So why is this?
2
votes
0answers
67 views

HALLEL Ki Amilam. Patach kamats & tsere

See Tehilim 118, 10: כָּל-גּוֹיִ֥ם סְבָב֑וּנִי בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְ֝הוָ֗ה כִּ֣י אֲמִילַֽם: ‏ The English translation in dTorah is: All nations surround me; but in the name of the Lord I will cut ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Flowchart (decision tree) for translating Chumash words

Looking for a 'flowchart' that can help me break down a Chumash word to determine the 'Shoresh' (root word), as well as the meaning of the prefixes, suffixes etc. The goal is to be able to translate ...
3
votes
1answer
115 views

Dageish in bin Nun

The Minchat Shai (by R Yedidya Norzi) at the beginning of Shlach says: נון: במקצת ספרי' הנו"ן בדגש, וכן כולם. וא"ת כתב הנו"ן רפה, וכן חביריו In some editions the nun has a dageish, and ...
1
vote
2answers
112 views

Nussach of Retse in Birkat Hamazon

I see in all sidurim in nussach of retse (BHMZ of Shabbat) "לשבת בו ולנוח בו". But recently some books changed the nussach to "לשבות בו ולנוח בו" So far I believed that the kamats in place of Cholam ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Are dageishim kalim absolute? part 2

This was actually what I originally intended to ask here, but I got sidetracked into a related question. They're similar points, but I think they're distinct enough to ask as separate questions. ...
3
votes
0answers
64 views

Parsing Shehechiyyanu

When reading the megilloth in shul from a klaf, many say the blessing of shehechiyyanu1. I have noticed that many people sing this blessing in its own tune (ie. not in trope), but I have also heard ...