Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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2
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1answer
55 views

The definition of ריב and its applications?

The verb ריב is often translated as quarrel, dispute, murmer, strife or argument, which seems quite logical when looking at Bereshit 13:7 when the herdsmen were bickering about land because it couldn'...
4
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1answer
79 views

Difference between מלכו and מלכותו

I was wondering what the difference in meaning (and thus, in the interpretation of Pesukim in the Megillah, as well as various Pesukim in Tanach) between למלכו and למלכותו, specifically according to ...
3
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1answer
56 views

Different words for curse

I noticed in translation different words are being used to describe 'curse' 1. מארה - m'erah, curse 2. קללה - klalah, curse 3. ארר - arar, curse 4. אלה - alah, curse 5. קבב - kavav, curse... maybe ...
1
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1answer
36 views

A heap of people and ingathering of food

Is there any connection between the word אסף (to gather, collect) and אסם (literally a barn or storehouse but could be from an unised root meaning to heap up). I wondered because there is a feast in ...
2
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1answer
121 views

translation of vayikra

I believe the vav of vayikra is a vav hamehapeich, meaning it switches yikra from asid to avar. To that extent I heard that the correct translation would be He called, rather than "and He called" (...
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0answers
46 views

אדנים - Singular vs. Plural

I don't know if this is more Hebrew or if it is about biblical explication. In Malachi 1:6, the text reads וְאִם־אֲדוֹנִ֣ים אָנִי֩ which is translated (on Sefaria and cChabad) as "If I am a master" ...
14
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2answers
242 views

Dreamed vs. Dreaming a Dream

Posting for another friend. When does Lashon Hakodesh (throughout Tanach) use "ויחלם" (and he dreamed") by itself and when is "ויחלם חלום" ("and he dreamed a dream") used? It seems that most of the ...
4
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125 views

Correct pronunciation of הנתונים בצרה ובשביה

In the Tefillah of "Acheinu", we discuss our brothers who are "נתונים בצרה ובשביה". I have heard these words vowelized with a Pasach under the Beis of both terms (Batzarah Uvashivya, which would mean "...
3
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2answers
93 views

Throwing to vs. Throwing into the pit

I would need some help to answer a grammar question in order to understand the exact meaning a critical piece of the selling of Yosef. The Torah says in Bereshit 37:20 (from www.chabad.org): "...
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27 views

Different customs regarding the blessing before lighting the menorah [duplicate]

There are varying customs as to the text of the bracha we recite before lighting the menorah. Ashkenazim generally end the blessing with the words: .לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶׁל חֲנֻכָּה However, Hasidim ...
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2answers
195 views

What does “Yeshuos Panai” mean exactly?

I am a bit confused on the wording of Tehillim 42. Verse 6 states: :מַה־תִּֽשְׁתּ֬וֹחֲחִ֨י | נַפְשִׁי֘ וַתֶּֽהֱמִ֪י עָ֫לָ֥י הוֹחִ֣ילִי לֵֽ֖אלֹהִים כִּי־ע֥וֹד אוֹדֶ֗נּוּ יְשׁוּע֥וֹת פָּנָֽיו ...
4
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2answers
134 views

'עם' & 'את' based words in the story of Lot and Avram

I don't know the exact sources but I remembered some commentaries from the Malbim and Vilna Gaon which point out a difference between 'את'-based words and 'עם'-based words (both translated to mean '...
1
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1answer
84 views

Who went with whom? Lot and Avram

Genesis 12:4 reads: Vayelech Avram... Avram went according as HaShem had sproken to him, vayelech Lot ito, and Lot went with him. But the next verse reads: Vayikach Avram.. et Lot, and Avram took Lot, ...
2
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2answers
179 views

Why does Rambam spell it as קרית שמע?

Throughout the Mishneh Torah, Rambam spells the term for the recitation of Shema, without an א, as קרית שמע, even though the Aleph is part of the root of the word. To my knowledge, there is no ...
0
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1answer
85 views

nach nistar yud, followed by a yud

I noticed that the Artscroll siddur puts a line in אל-בני | ישראל at the beginning of the third parsha of Shema, which tells you not to merge the words together. Are they correct? The yud at the end ...
3
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0answers
57 views

Why are the Kadmonites singled out?

With my limited understanding of dikduk I don't know what the significance of the ־ symbol is. Maybe it indicates that two word should be read together? I know grammatically it turns an אֵ֖ת to an ...
1
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1answer
69 views

Does the Atnah/Etnahtah Denote Emphasis

Im learning with a new te'amim teacher. He mentioned that one cant rely on the atnah / etnahta symbol to show syllabic emphasis. He also said that the symbol never shows up on the end of a word. Can ...
1
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1answer
52 views

Does יו close a syllable? [closed]

With a word like ידיו is the final syllable closed or open? Are the final letters a closed consonant or an extension of the vowel, like a tripthong?
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80 views

Why in Hebrew masculine nouns agree with feminine numbers and vice verse? [closed]

Also in other semitic languages, see Why do feminine-looking numbers agree with masculine nouns and vice versa in Hebrew and Arabic?. As other languages seemingly stemmed from Biblical Hebrew (Loshon ...
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1answer
229 views

Explanation of Kamatz vs. Patach ה הידעה

I've noticed that possukim will switch back and forth between the vowelizing of the definite article heh, sometimes multiple times within the same possuk. Is there a rule for this or an explanation in ...
1
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1answer
154 views

Dageish at the beginning of a word - pronunciation?

For those who pronounce a דגש חזק as a double letter (e.g. הַמֶּלֶךְ as הַמְמֶלֶךְ but with a שוא נח on the first מ''ם), how should a דגש חזק at the beginning of a word be pronounced (e.g. הוֹשִׁיעָה ...
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48 views

Hallel Grammar בתוכך vs בְּתוֹכֵכִי

Why do some chazanim pronounce בתוכך during Hallel instead of בְּתוֹכֵכִי - the way it's written in the pasuk? 116:19 בְּחַצְרוֹת, בֵּית יְהוָה-- בְּתוֹכֵכִי יְרוּשָׁלִָם: הַלְלוּ-יָהּ. In ...
2
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1answer
91 views

What is the object of the verbs in Ya'aleh V'yavo?

(This might have to be closed/migrated as about language. I'm not sure.) In the Ya'aleh V'yavo prayer, there is an opening string of verbs. Based on what I recall of Hebrew grammar, each is written ...
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56 views

Torah Blessing - הַמְבֹרָךְ or הַמְּבֹרָךְ

In the blessing before the torah reading, some siddurim have הַמְּבֹרָךְ (with a dagesh in the mem) and others have הַמְבֹרָךְ. Wouldn't the hay hayedia require a dagesh in the mem thus making the ...
1
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1answer
62 views

Rosh Hashanah Amidah - Neshama be-apo or neshamah ve-apo?

In the final paragraph of the bracha of kedushas hayom / malchuyos which we recite in every Rosh Hashanah amidah, we find the phrase "ויאמר כל אשר נשמה באפו". Is there a dagesh in the 'ב' of 'באפו'? ...
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2answers
219 views

Why are the words Kiddushin, Erusin, Nissuin plural?

The Mishnah says "האיש מקדש", just like on Shabbos. Nevertheless, on Shabbos we call it a Kiddush (single) but on wedding we call it either Kiddushin, Erusin, Nissuin which are all plural.
3
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1answer
65 views

Why is the word ראש singular by Orev and Ze'ev in Sefer Shoftim

The pasuk in Shoftim 7:25 teaches us וַֽיִּלְכְּד֡וּ שְׁנֵֽי־שָׂרֵ֨י מִדְיָ֜ן אֶת־עֹרֵ֣ב וְאֶת־זְאֵ֗ב וַיַּהַרְג֨וּ אֶת־עוֹרֵ֤ב בְּצוּר־עוֹרֵב֙ וְאֶת־זְאֵב֙ הָרְג֣וּ בְיֶֽקֶב־זְאֵ֔ב וַֽיִּרְדְּפ֖וּ ...
3
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1answer
47 views

Nefesh tachas Nefesh vs. Nefesh BeNefesh

Exodus 21:23-24 states: וְאִם־אָס֖וֹן יִהְיֶ֑ה וְנָתַתָּ֥ה נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ׃ But if other damage ensues, the penalty shall be life for life, עַ֚יִן תַּ֣חַת עַ֔יִן שֵׁ֖ן תַּ֣חַת ...
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0answers
60 views

Mashal and Mishal

When looking at the word משל (proverb, parable or allegory), I found out it's a tribe from Asher (Divrei Hayamim 6:59), but in Yehoshua 21 it reads from the tribe of Asher, משאל (with the meaning ...
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1answer
44 views

Taking control a command for men and it's meaning

With so many words which describe ruling, submission, dominion, leading, controling, reagning etc. I wondered why the word mashal was chosen in Bereshit 3:16 and rarah and kabash in Bereshit 1:26-28,...
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0answers
24 views

What does a nun sofit do to a verb? [duplicate]

In Devarim, 13:12, the text reads "יִשְׁמְע֖וּ וְיִֽרָא֑וּן וְלֹֽא־יוֹסִ֣פוּ לַעֲשׂ֗וֹת " which is translated (on Sefaria) as "will hear and be afraid, and such evil things will not be done again". ...
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0answers
33 views

Change from 2nd to 3rd Person in Yehi Ratzon

As part of putting on my tefillin in the morning, I say a prayer (found on page 13 of my Siddur Tefilla Hashalem, by A. Greenwald, which I can't find online) beginning with "L'shem Yichud". The text ...
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0answers
81 views

אלי and עלי what's the difference?

Could someone explain the difference between (2 Samuel 15:4 for example) עלי and אלי (Ezra 9:4 for example)? what's the difference They both refer to 'my' or 'me' because of the yod suffix right? ...
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1answer
44 views

Where is exactly is שָֽׁם in the pasuk גַּם־בִּי֙ הִתְאַנַּ֣ף יְהוָ֔ה בִּגְלַלְכֶ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר גַּם־אַתָּ֖ה לֹא־תָבֹ֥א שָֽׁם (Devarim 1:37)

In Devarim 1:37, Moshe tells us that גַּם־בִּי֙ הִתְאַנַּ֣ף יְהוָ֔ה בִּגְלַלְכֶ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר גַּם־אַתָּ֖ה לֹא־תָבֹ֥א שָֽׁם Because of you the LORD was incensed with me too, and He said: You ...
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2answers
68 views

In Exodus 3:14 is there a linguistic relationship between the Tetragrammaton and the “to be” and what is that linguistic relationship?

In other words, is Exodus 3:14 suggesting that the Tetragrammaton is a form of the verb "to be"? Can someone explain the linguistic path from the Tetragrammaton to the verb, "to be"?
6
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4answers
185 views

נַ֣חְנוּ נַעֲבֹ֧ר Is the Torah using slang

In Bamidbar 32:32, The Torah tells us in reference to Bnei Gad and Bnei Reuven that נַ֣חְנוּ נַעֲבֹ֧ר, we will cross over. Also, the only other times that the Tanach uses the word נַ֣חְנוּ is in: ...
3
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1answer
153 views

Adon Olam: “Yetzir” or “Yetzur”?

Aside from the additional lines in the Sephardi version of the piyut, "Adon Olam", I have seen two different variations in the beginning lines of the prayer. In most versions, such as in general ...
3
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0answers
69 views

Good resources for learning dikduk [duplicate]

I am really interested in dikduk and am always trying to learn more. Does anyone have any good resources to learn dikduk, preferably online, if not a book/sefer is fine. Thanks
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0answers
14 views

Why is there a dagesh in the כּ in מִ֥י כָּמֹ֖כָה נֶאְדָּ֣ר בַּקֹּ֑דֶשׁ [duplicate]

Rashi tells us in Devarim 11:30 by the words הֲלֹא־הֵ֜מָּה בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֗ן אַֽחֲרֵי֙ דֶּ֚רֶךְ מְב֣וֹא הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ that "אַחֲרֵי" נָקוּד בְּפַשְׁטָא, וְ"דֶרֶךְ" נָקוּד בְּמַשְׁפֵּל, וְהוּא דָּגֵשׁ, ...
0
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1answer
47 views

Improper use of the word ותאמר in Megillat Esther 5:14

The pasuk in Megillat Esther 5:14 tells us that וַתֹּ֣אמֶר לוֹ֩ זֶ֨רֶשׁ אִשְׁתּ֜וֹ וְכָל־אֹֽהֲבָ֗יו. The word וַתֹּ֣אמֶר means and she said, so the pasuk would be grammatically correct if only Zeresh ...
2
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1answer
53 views

ויעש בלק כאשר אמר בלעם vs ויעש בלק כאשר דבר בלעם

The first time Bilaam attempts to curse Bnei Yisrael, he tells Balak to build seven mizbachot and to sacrifice a ram and cow on each one. The pasuk then tells us in Bamidbar 23:2 that וַיַּ֣עַשׂ ...
2
votes
2answers
71 views

למען שמו in the first berachah of shemonah esrei

We begin the first berachah of shemonah esrei by saying ברוך אתה ה׳, we are talking directly to Hashem. We praise him throughout the berachah and towards the end we say that Hashem helps us למען שמו, ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Inconsistent gender of מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת

In Parashat Naso, the verse says that כִּֽי־מִנְחַ֤ת קְנָאֹת֙ ה֔וּא (Bamidbar 5:15) in the masculine form, however a few pesukim later we hear that מִנְחַ֥ת קְנָאֹ֖ת הִ֑וא (Bamidbar 5:18) in the ...
1
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0answers
28 views

What is the difference between הִיא spelled with yud and הִיא spelled with a vav (הִוא), both meaning “she” in Parshat Naso? [duplicate]

Whenever the word הִיא is used in the Torah, it is either spelled with a yud (like הִיא) or with a vav (like הִוא). What is the difference in meaning between the two spellings? Additionally, in ...
3
votes
2answers
24 views

Can a noun participle be in the past? [Beiza 7b]

the second part of the mishna in Beiza says: השוחט חיה ועוף ביום טוב, בית שמאי אומרים: יחפור בדקר ויכסה How do you translate this? I would just translate: „someone who slaughters an animal and a ...
2
votes
1answer
86 views

Rav Hirsh's play on roots

Rav Hirsh often relates similar sounding word-roots. For example, in the beginning of Bereshit he compares the root ברא to ברח to show that they have the common meaning of "wanting to come out or be ...
5
votes
2answers
235 views

I am looking for a resource that finds words with a certain root in Tanakh

I am a beginner in Hebrew and so please forgive me if my question shows profound ignorance. I would like to pull up or list verses in the Tanakh based on them having a particular vocabulary word in ...
4
votes
2answers
97 views

In Bamidbar 11:5 why does it use the word נֹאכַ֥ל which is typically future tense?

In Bamidbar 11:5 it says: זָכַ֙רְנוּ֙ אֶת־הַדָּגָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־נֹאכַ֥ל בְּמִצְרַ֖יִם חִנָּ֑ם אֵ֣ת הַקִּשֻּׁאִ֗ים וְאֵת֙ הָֽאֲבַטִּחִ֔ים וְאֶת־הֶחָצִ֥יר וְאֶת־הַבְּצָלִ֖ים וְאֶת־הַשּׁוּמִֽים׃ We ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Hiriq yud ending for third person

This question pertains to Psalm 113. In verses 6,7,8,and 9 the ending hiriq yud seems to be used to indicate third person singular verbs rather than first person singular. Is this true? It is the ...
3
votes
2answers
609 views

What does hedyotot mean?

I was recently discussing the prohibition of studying "shitrei hedyotot" (loosely translated as secular studies). But when looking at a debate of the Rabbis in Talmud Bavli Sanhedrin 21:b-22:a the ...