Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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5
votes
2answers
249 views

I am looking for a resource that finds words with a certain root in Tanakh

I am a beginner in Hebrew and so please forgive me if my question shows profound ignorance. I would like to pull up or list verses in the Tanakh based on them having a particular vocabulary word in ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Where is exactly is שָֽׁם in the pasuk גַּם־בִּי֙ הִתְאַנַּ֣ף יְהוָ֔ה בִּגְלַלְכֶ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר גַּם־אַתָּ֖ה לֹא־תָבֹ֥א שָֽׁם (Devarim 1:37)

In Devarim 1:37, Moshe tells us that גַּם־בִּי֙ הִתְאַנַּ֣ף יְהוָ֔ה בִּגְלַלְכֶ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר גַּם־אַתָּ֖ה לֹא־תָבֹ֥א שָֽׁם Because of you the LORD was incensed with me too, and He said: You ...
3
votes
1answer
192 views

Can a meteg make a difference in meaning?

I have a book called ספר הקריאה השלם: חלק ג, פיתוחי חותם. I bought it from my shul and don't have any other chalakim or further information on it. It's not a kids' book, but it looks like one (pages ...
6
votes
4answers
189 views

נַ֣חְנוּ נַעֲבֹ֧ר Is the Torah using slang

In Bamidbar 32:32, The Torah tells us in reference to Bnei Gad and Bnei Reuven that נַ֣חְנוּ נַעֲבֹ֧ר, we will cross over. Also, the only other times that the Tanach uses the word נַ֣חְנוּ is in: ...
1
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2answers
68 views

In Exodus 3:14 is there a linguistic relationship between the Tetragrammaton and the “to be” and what is that linguistic relationship?

In other words, is Exodus 3:14 suggesting that the Tetragrammaton is a form of the verb "to be"? Can someone explain the linguistic path from the Tetragrammaton to the verb, "to be"?
2
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2answers
469 views

Shva na after meteg on short vowel

When a long vowel has a meteg, there is a difference of opinion if the shva after it is na or nach. What about a short vowel with a meteg? Is it vayihi chen or vayhi chen? Is it tihiyeh or tihyeh? Is ...
3
votes
1answer
170 views

Adon Olam: “Yetzir” or “Yetzur”?

Aside from the additional lines in the Sephardi version of the piyut, "Adon Olam", I have seen two different variations in the beginning lines of the prayer. In most versions, such as in general ...
3
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0answers
79 views

Good resources for learning dikduk [duplicate]

I am really interested in dikduk and am always trying to learn more. Does anyone have any good resources to learn dikduk, preferably online, if not a book/sefer is fine. Thanks
1
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0answers
14 views

Why is there a dagesh in the כּ in מִ֥י כָּמֹ֖כָה נֶאְדָּ֣ר בַּקֹּ֑דֶשׁ [duplicate]

Rashi tells us in Devarim 11:30 by the words הֲלֹא־הֵ֜מָּה בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֗ן אַֽחֲרֵי֙ דֶּ֚רֶךְ מְב֣וֹא הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ that "אַחֲרֵי" נָקוּד בְּפַשְׁטָא, וְ"דֶרֶךְ" נָקוּד בְּמַשְׁפֵּל, וְהוּא דָּגֵשׁ, ...
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1answer
48 views

Improper use of the word ותאמר in Megillat Esther 5:14

The pasuk in Megillat Esther 5:14 tells us that וַתֹּ֣אמֶר לוֹ֩ זֶ֨רֶשׁ אִשְׁתּ֜וֹ וְכָל־אֹֽהֲבָ֗יו. The word וַתֹּ֣אמֶר means and she said, so the pasuk would be grammatically correct if only Zeresh ...
2
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1answer
87 views

Rav Hirsh's play on roots

Rav Hirsh often relates similar sounding word-roots. For example, in the beginning of Bereshit he compares the root ברא to ברח to show that they have the common meaning of "wanting to come out or be ...
2
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1answer
53 views

ויעש בלק כאשר אמר בלעם vs ויעש בלק כאשר דבר בלעם

The first time Bilaam attempts to curse Bnei Yisrael, he tells Balak to build seven mizbachot and to sacrifice a ram and cow on each one. The pasuk then tells us in Bamidbar 23:2 that וַיַּ֣עַשׂ ...
3
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6answers
581 views

Makers and Creators: Job 35:10 & 12:1 Kohelet singular v.s. plural

After reading the description of the Zohar from the Chabad website, I got confused: What is the correct translation for Job 35:10: 'My Maker', ' Our Maker', or Makers? After searching the internet ...
2
votes
2answers
72 views

למען שמו in the first berachah of shemonah esrei

We begin the first berachah of shemonah esrei by saying ברוך אתה ה׳, we are talking directly to Hashem. We praise him throughout the berachah and towards the end we say that Hashem helps us למען שמו, ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Inconsistent gender of מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת

In Parashat Naso, the verse says that כִּֽי־מִנְחַ֤ת קְנָאֹת֙ ה֔וּא (Bamidbar 5:15) in the masculine form, however a few pesukim later we hear that מִנְחַ֥ת קְנָאֹ֖ת הִ֑וא (Bamidbar 5:18) in the ...
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0answers
29 views

What is the difference between הִיא spelled with yud and הִיא spelled with a vav (הִוא), both meaning “she” in Parshat Naso? [duplicate]

Whenever the word הִיא is used in the Torah, it is either spelled with a yud (like הִיא) or with a vav (like הִוא). What is the difference in meaning between the two spellings? Additionally, in ...
3
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2answers
24 views

Can a noun participle be in the past? [Beiza 7b]

the second part of the mishna in Beiza says: השוחט חיה ועוף ביום טוב, בית שמאי אומרים: יחפור בדקר ויכסה How do you translate this? I would just translate: „someone who slaughters an animal and a ...
12
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3answers
308 views

verb + its infinitive

Many, many times in Tanach, including Chumash, a verb has its infinitive nearby. Examples include B'reshis 2:16 מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל (I think that's the first example in Chumash) and ...
4
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2answers
98 views

In Bamidbar 11:5 why does it use the word נֹאכַ֥ל which is typically future tense?

In Bamidbar 11:5 it says: זָכַ֙רְנוּ֙ אֶת־הַדָּגָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־נֹאכַ֥ל בְּמִצְרַ֖יִם חִנָּ֑ם אֵ֣ת הַקִּשֻּׁאִ֗ים וְאֵת֙ הָֽאֲבַטִּחִ֔ים וְאֶת־הֶחָצִ֥יר וְאֶת־הַבְּצָלִ֖ים וְאֶת־הַשּׁוּמִֽים׃ We ...
12
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2answers
467 views

Is the bracha pronounced “ha-MO-tzee” or “ha-mo-TZEE”?

The blessing we say on bread, "hamotzee lechem min ha'aretz" -- on what syllable is the stress in the word "hamotzee"? Is the bracha pronounced "ha-MO-tzee" or "ha-mo-TZEE"? In Psalms 104:14 we find ...
2
votes
2answers
242 views

Why is it a sheva na in ha-leviyim?

Before the Psalm for the day at the end of Shacharis each day, we say a sentence, "Today is the Xth day of the week..." In that sentence is a word for Levites, and that word in Hebrew has a sheva ...
6
votes
1answer
171 views

When did siddurim first start showing sheva na - nach differently?

Some (most?) widely used siddurim today give the reader some pronunciation information that is not obvious in standard Hebrew lettering: when a sheva is pronounced (e.g., by making the sheva na bold, ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Hiriq yud ending for third person

This question pertains to Psalm 113. In verses 6,7,8,and 9 the ending hiriq yud seems to be used to indicate third person singular verbs rather than first person singular. Is this true? It is the ...
3
votes
2answers
614 views

What does hedyotot mean?

I was recently discussing the prohibition of studying "shitrei hedyotot" (loosely translated as secular studies). But when looking at a debate of the Rabbis in Talmud Bavli Sanhedrin 21:b-22:a the ...
4
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0answers
91 views

No Dagesh for Yud, Lamed, Mem with Shva after Hei HaYdiah [closed]

In general, when a word is prefixed by Hei HaYdiah (the definite article), the following consonant receives a Dagesh Hazak (gemination). Clear exceptions are when that consonant is a guttural and ...
-2
votes
1answer
91 views

To bend or graft; did the Rashbam made a mistake?

According to Rashbam (on the parellel verse 28:14) the meaning that comes in mind regards the word "Ve'nivrechu" in Genesis 12:3 is 'to graft' a branch. But then I looked up the possible sources (...
1
vote
1answer
272 views

articulation of resh with dagesh

It is well known that ר not lend itself to gemination. It never has virtual gemination. As for the full gemination indicated by the dagesh, ר allows it, but only very rarely, and never after the ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

What is the function of את here?

What is the function of את in Shemot 21:28 when it says וכי-יגח שור את-איש או את-אשה ומת? את here is not marking definite direct objects but indefinite direct objects as there are no markings of ...
3
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0answers
52 views

Invalid verb conjugation מצות יאכל

In Shemos 13:7, the verse uses the passive form מצות יאכל, where the subject is feminine plural but the verb is masculine singular. A similar occurrence is in Pinchas for Pesach korbanos (Bamidbar 28:...
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0answers
65 views

Practical suggestions for choosing between different nuschaot in the Torah

Unfortunately, it's not hard to find places in the Torah, and even more so in Nach, where we have a doubt about either the trop or the nekudot. (Or, more rarely, letters, but those are generally the ...
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0answers
83 views

Tzerei vs. Sh'va vs. Segol

Are there examples of words where pronouncing a sh'va as a tzeirei or a segol (or pronouncing a tzeirei as a sh'va or a segol or a segol as a sh'va or a tzeire) creates a different meaning? I'm ...
5
votes
1answer
122 views

Is there a reason for the change in word order in Vayikra 25:10?

In parshat Behar (Vayikra 25:10) is the phrase ושבתם איש אל אחוזתו ואיש אל משפחתו תשובו - "You shall return every man to his inheritance, and every man to his family shall you return." Is there a ...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

Shabbat, Shabbatot, Shabbaton?

Are there any halachic implications from the Torah's choice of the terms Shabbat, Shabbatot and Shabbaton? And to what are they referring? And what does the Torah mean when it calls the Shabbat a "...
2
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0answers
29 views

When does the Mishna use the word “Hem” and when does it use the word “Hen”?

I always assumed that Hem and Hen are masculine and feminine, but I see that the Mishna uses them quite interchangeably: "שלשה תריסין הם" - Masculine with Hem "שלש עגלות הם" - Feminine with Hem "...
2
votes
3answers
57 views

If שכינה is לשון נקבה then why ותראהו?

According to rashi's drash explanation (taken from :סוטה יב) of שמות ב:ו ד״ה ותפתח ותראהו how can השכינה, a grammatically feminine word, refer back to the masculine objective suffix הו-? Perhaps ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Question of a formulaic irregularity in the korbanos reading of the morning service

In the korbanos reading of the morning service, they all begin with vayomer h' el moshe l'emor... except the ketores which skips l'emor, saying only vayomer h' el moshe kach lcha... why?
4
votes
2answers
123 views

A grammatical question about Shabbes davening

I recently noticed that in my siddur (Siddur Vilna), in the fourth berakha of the Shabbes davening (או"א רצה במנוחתינו...), there's a pronominal suffix near the conclusion that changes depending on ...
4
votes
1answer
183 views

Why does the Gemara sometimes use the word Ben and sometimes use the word Bar?

Why does the Talmud sometimes refer to someone as Ploni ben Ploni, and other times as Ploni bar Ploni? Classic example: In Bava Batra 14b the gemara says Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai In Bar Ilan's ...
1
vote
2answers
71 views

What is the difference in meaning / nuance between ריב and תלונה?

We frequently see some form of ריב and /or תלונה used when B'nai Yisra'el complains with Moshe and Aharon. Examples: Shemot 15:24 וילונו Shemot 16:2 וילונו Shemot 17:2 וירב Shemot 17:3 וילן My ...
5
votes
0answers
90 views

Another doubt in Zachor?

Many shuls read the last pasuk of Parshat Zachor twice, once with "zeicher" and once with "zecher", based on a (possibly not so valid) doubt in how the word should be read. The Tikkun Simanim brings ...
4
votes
2answers
123 views

Eliphaz and Bildad Zophar

Iyov 42:9: וַיֵּלְכוּ אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי וּבִלְדַּד הַשּׁוּחִי צֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם ה׳ In the JPS translation: So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the ...
3
votes
2answers
182 views

new artscroll siddur dikduk questions

In the new Artscroll siddurim (ie. the "WASSERMAN EDITION OF THE NEW, EXPANDED ARTSCROLL SIDDUR"), there are a few changes from the older Artscroll siddurim. In the new siddurim, the word "rivah" in ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Aiyn Hara vs. Eiyn Hara [closed]

The expression עין הרע is a case of סמיכות. It seems we often tend to (if not always) pronounce the noun עין with a patach beneath the ע and chirik beneath the י. Shouldn't it be pronounced as eiyn ...
5
votes
0answers
166 views

Why does Rashi call tzeirei and segol “kamatz katan” and “patach katan”

Rashi often refers to tzeirei as "kamatz katan" and segol as "patach katan". Why? In what sense are they smaller versions of kamatz and patach? I understand that kamatz and tzeirei are תנועות ...
8
votes
3answers
539 views

Meaning of ח-ל-צ

Words of the root חלצ seem to have contradictory meanings. On the one hand it is used in the sense of "removing," as in בית חלוץ הנעל and כי חלצת נפשי ממות. On the other hand, warriors are called ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

“Ad shetichleh” or “ad shetikaleh”?

What is the correct ניקוד (and concomitant translation) of the word שתכלה in the phrase עד שתכלה רגל מן השוק ? Is it תִכְלֶה, which would be קל or תִכָּלֶה, which would be נפעל? Does this ...
2
votes
4answers
797 views

Are there prophetic perfect tenses?

In Christianity, there is a school of interpretation where God sometimes describe future events using past tenses. God, being outside of time, see future events as if it already happens and hence use ...
3
votes
0answers
249 views

Unexpected Dagesh in Reish

I learned that a rule of Dageshim is that gutteral letters (אהחע''ר) reject dageshim. My question is why do we find 17 reishs (1 Samuel 1:6, 1 Samuel 10:24, 1 Samuel 17:25, 2 Kings 6:32, Jeremiah 39:...
0
votes
2answers
121 views

Unusual format of plural fem. 2nd person pronoun in Gen. 31:6

The beginning of Breishit 31:6 uses the word ואתנה for the 2nd person Hebrew plural pronoun instead of the more common form אתן. This is the only time I have seen this form used in the Torah (I haven'...
3
votes
3answers
388 views

Does anyone have a suggestion for a good book on dikduk?

I'm looking for a good book on dikduk for strictly loshon hakodesh (for studying tanach and talmud) . Any suggestions? in english preferably

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