Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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3
votes
6answers
555 views

Makers and Creators: Job 35:10 & 12:1 Kohelet singular v.s. plural

After reading the description of the Zohar from the Chabad website, I got confused: What is the correct translation for Job 35:10: 'My Maker', ' Our Maker', or Makers? After searching the internet ...
2
votes
2answers
71 views

למען שמו in the first berachah of shemonah esrei

We begin the first berachah of shemonah esrei by saying ברוך אתה ה׳, we are talking directly to Hashem. We praise him throughout the berachah and towards the end we say that Hashem helps us למען שמו, ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Inconsistent gender of מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת

In Parashat Naso, the verse says that כִּֽי־מִנְחַ֤ת קְנָאֹת֙ ה֔וּא (Bamidbar 5:15) in the masculine form, however a few pesukim later we hear that מִנְחַ֥ת קְנָאֹ֖ת הִ֑וא (Bamidbar 5:18) in the ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

What is the difference between הִיא spelled with yud and הִיא spelled with a vav (הִוא), both meaning “she” in Parshat Naso? [duplicate]

Whenever the word הִיא is used in the Torah, it is either spelled with a yud (like הִיא) or with a vav (like הִוא). What is the difference in meaning between the two spellings? Additionally, in ...
3
votes
2answers
24 views

Can a noun participle be in the past? [Beiza 7b]

the second part of the mishna in Beiza says: השוחט חיה ועוף ביום טוב, בית שמאי אומרים: יחפור בדקר ויכסה How do you translate this? I would just translate: „someone who slaughters an animal and a ...
12
votes
3answers
304 views

verb + its infinitive

Many, many times in Tanach, including Chumash, a verb has its infinitive nearby. Examples include B'reshis 2:16 מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל (I think that's the first example in Chumash) and ...
4
votes
2answers
98 views

In Bamidbar 11:5 why does it use the word נֹאכַ֥ל which is typically future tense?

In Bamidbar 11:5 it says: זָכַ֙רְנוּ֙ אֶת־הַדָּגָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־נֹאכַ֥ל בְּמִצְרַ֖יִם חִנָּ֑ם אֵ֣ת הַקִּשֻּׁאִ֗ים וְאֵת֙ הָֽאֲבַטִּחִ֔ים וְאֶת־הֶחָצִ֥יר וְאֶת־הַבְּצָלִ֖ים וְאֶת־הַשּׁוּמִֽים׃ We ...
12
votes
2answers
457 views

Is the bracha pronounced “ha-MO-tzee” or “ha-mo-TZEE”?

The blessing we say on bread, "hamotzee lechem min ha'aretz" -- on what syllable is the stress in the word "hamotzee"? Is the bracha pronounced "ha-MO-tzee" or "ha-mo-TZEE"? In Psalms 104:14 we find ...
2
votes
2answers
234 views

Why is it a sheva na in ha-leviyim?

Before the Psalm for the day at the end of Shacharis each day, we say a sentence, "Today is the Xth day of the week..." In that sentence is a word for Levites, and that word in Hebrew has a sheva ...
6
votes
1answer
167 views

When did siddurim first start showing sheva na - nach differently?

Some (most?) widely used siddurim today give the reader some pronunciation information that is not obvious in standard Hebrew lettering: when a sheva is pronounced (e.g., by making the sheva na bold, ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Hiriq yud ending for third person

This question pertains to Psalm 113. In verses 6,7,8,and 9 the ending hiriq yud seems to be used to indicate third person singular verbs rather than first person singular. Is this true? It is the ...
3
votes
2answers
610 views

What does hedyotot mean?

I was recently discussing the prohibition of studying "shitrei hedyotot" (loosely translated as secular studies). But when looking at a debate of the Rabbis in Talmud Bavli Sanhedrin 21:b-22:a the ...
4
votes
0answers
88 views

No Dagesh for Yud, Lamed, Mem with Shva after Hei HaYdiah [closed]

In general, when a word is prefixed by Hei HaYdiah (the definite article), the following consonant receives a Dagesh Hazak (gemination). Clear exceptions are when that consonant is a guttural and ...
-2
votes
1answer
88 views

To bend or graft; did the Rashbam made a mistake?

According to Rashbam (on the parellel verse 28:14) the meaning that comes in mind regards the word "Ve'nivrechu" in Genesis 12:3 is 'to graft' a branch. But then I looked up the possible sources (...
1
vote
1answer
256 views

articulation of resh with dagesh

It is well known that ר not lend itself to gemination. It never has virtual gemination. As for the full gemination indicated by the dagesh, ר allows it, but only very rarely, and never after the ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

What is the function of את here?

What is the function of את in Shemot 21:28 when it says וכי-יגח שור את-איש או את-אשה ומת? את here is not marking definite direct objects but indefinite direct objects as there are no markings of ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

Invalid verb conjugation מצות יאכל

In Shemos 13:7, the verse uses the passive form מצות יאכל, where the subject is feminine plural but the verb is masculine singular. A similar occurrence is in Pinchas for Pesach korbanos (Bamidbar 28:...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Practical suggestions for choosing between different nuschaot in the Torah

Unfortunately, it's not hard to find places in the Torah, and even more so in Nach, where we have a doubt about either the trop or the nekudot. (Or, more rarely, letters, but those are generally the ...
1
vote
0answers
82 views

Tzerei vs. Sh'va vs. Segol

Are there examples of words where pronouncing a sh'va as a tzeirei or a segol (or pronouncing a tzeirei as a sh'va or a segol or a segol as a sh'va or a tzeire) creates a different meaning? I'm ...
5
votes
1answer
122 views

Is there a reason for the change in word order in Vayikra 25:10?

In parshat Behar (Vayikra 25:10) is the phrase ושבתם איש אל אחוזתו ואיש אל משפחתו תשובו - "You shall return every man to his inheritance, and every man to his family shall you return." Is there a ...
3
votes
3answers
996 views

Shabbat, Shabbatot, Shabbaton?

Are there any halachic implications from the Torah's choice of the terms Shabbat, Shabbatot and Shabbaton? And to what are they referring? And what does the Torah mean when it calls the Shabbat a "...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

When does the Mishna use the word “Hem” and when does it use the word “Hen”?

I always assumed that Hem and Hen are masculine and feminine, but I see that the Mishna uses them quite interchangeably: "שלשה תריסין הם" - Masculine with Hem "שלש עגלות הם" - Feminine with Hem "...
2
votes
3answers
56 views

If שכינה is לשון נקבה then why ותראהו?

According to rashi's drash explanation (taken from :סוטה יב) of שמות ב:ו ד״ה ותפתח ותראהו how can השכינה, a grammatically feminine word, refer back to the masculine objective suffix הו-? Perhaps ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Question of a formulaic irregularity in the korbanos reading of the morning service

In the korbanos reading of the morning service, they all begin with vayomer h' el moshe l'emor... except the ketores which skips l'emor, saying only vayomer h' el moshe kach lcha... why?
4
votes
2answers
121 views

A grammatical question about Shabbes davening

I recently noticed that in my siddur (Siddur Vilna), in the fourth berakha of the Shabbes davening (או"א רצה במנוחתינו...), there's a pronominal suffix near the conclusion that changes depending on ...
4
votes
1answer
175 views

Why does the Gemara sometimes use the word Ben and sometimes use the word Bar?

Why does the Talmud sometimes refer to someone as Ploni ben Ploni, and other times as Ploni bar Ploni? Classic example: In Bava Batra 14b the gemara says Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai In Bar Ilan's ...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

What is the difference in meaning / nuance between ריב and תלונה?

We frequently see some form of ריב and /or תלונה used when B'nai Yisra'el complains with Moshe and Aharon. Examples: Shemot 15:24 וילונו Shemot 16:2 וילונו Shemot 17:2 וירב Shemot 17:3 וילן My ...
4
votes
0answers
86 views

Another doubt in Zachor?

Many shuls read the last pasuk of Parshat Zachor twice, once with "zeicher" and once with "zecher", based on a (possibly not so valid) doubt in how the word should be read. The Tikkun Simanim brings ...
4
votes
2answers
123 views

Eliphaz and Bildad Zophar

Iyov 42:9: וַיֵּלְכוּ אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי וּבִלְדַּד הַשּׁוּחִי צֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם ה׳ In the JPS translation: So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the ...
3
votes
2answers
176 views

new artscroll siddur dikduk questions

In the new Artscroll siddurim (ie. the "WASSERMAN EDITION OF THE NEW, EXPANDED ARTSCROLL SIDDUR"), there are a few changes from the older Artscroll siddurim. In the new siddurim, the word "rivah" in ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Aiyn Hara vs. Eiyn Hara [closed]

The expression עין הרע is a case of סמיכות. It seems we often tend to (if not always) pronounce the noun עין with a patach beneath the ע and chirik beneath the י. Shouldn't it be pronounced as eiyn ...
5
votes
0answers
156 views

Why does Rashi call tzeirei and segol “kamatz katan” and “patach katan”

Rashi often refers to tzeirei as "kamatz katan" and segol as "patach katan". Why? In what sense are they smaller versions of kamatz and patach? I understand that kamatz and tzeirei are תנועות ...
8
votes
3answers
537 views

Meaning of ח-ל-צ

Words of the root חלצ seem to have contradictory meanings. On the one hand it is used in the sense of "removing," as in בית חלוץ הנעל and כי חלצת נפשי ממות. On the other hand, warriors are called ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

“Ad shetichleh” or “ad shetikaleh”?

What is the correct ניקוד (and concomitant translation) of the word שתכלה in the phrase עד שתכלה רגל מן השוק ? Is it תִכְלֶה, which would be קל or תִכָּלֶה, which would be נפעל? Does this ...
2
votes
4answers
756 views

Are there prophetic perfect tenses?

In Christianity, there is a school of interpretation where God sometimes describe future events using past tenses. God, being outside of time, see future events as if it already happens and hence use ...
3
votes
0answers
237 views

Unexpected Dagesh in Reish

I learned that a rule of Dageshim is that gutteral letters (אהחע''ר) reject dageshim. My question is why do we find 17 reishs (1 Samuel 1:6, 1 Samuel 10:24, 1 Samuel 17:25, 2 Kings 6:32, Jeremiah 39:...
0
votes
2answers
121 views

Unusual format of plural fem. 2nd person pronoun in Gen. 31:6

The beginning of Breishit 31:6 uses the word ואתנה for the 2nd person Hebrew plural pronoun instead of the more common form אתן. This is the only time I have seen this form used in the Torah (I haven'...
3
votes
3answers
360 views

Does anyone have a suggestion for a good book on dikduk?

I'm looking for a good book on dikduk for strictly loshon hakodesh (for studying tanach and talmud) . Any suggestions? in english preferably
-1
votes
2answers
253 views

B'rashith (Genesis) 27.28 - the Hebrew rule of grammar, is it a vav sheva or a vav patach?

is the Hebrew rule of grammar always consistent when it lays down the rule that "no two shevas begin a word?" For example, Brashith (Genesis) 27.28 uses the vav sheva followed by a yud sheva. Shouldn'...
1
vote
1answer
114 views

Trop of את ה____ האלה

The first pasuk of Ekev, Devarim 7:12: וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ עֵ֣קֶב תִּשְׁמְע֗וּן אֵ֤ת הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים֙ הָאֵ֔לֶּה וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֥ם וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם וְשָׁמַר֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ לְךָ֗ אֶֽת־הַבְּרִית֙ וְאֶת־...
3
votes
2answers
200 views

Grammar of Birchot HaShachar

I have at times noticed that there are disagreements in the grammar of certain brachot in Birchot haShachar. For example, the first brachah is "אשר נתן", one of the later ones is either (depending on ...
8
votes
7answers
394 views

Ḥaser form of writing “Jerusalem” in the Bible

It seems that Jerusalem is always written "ḥaser" (defective) in the Bible: that is, as ירושלם, without the י/yud, as opposed "malei" (full), as ירושלים. See, for example, Isaiah 62:6. This presents a ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Why is there a grammar change from singular to plural in Breishit (Gen.) 19:34?

Context: Lot's oldest daughter suggests to her younger sister that they intoxicate their father and have intercourse with him. My translation of Breishit 19:34: "It was the morrow. The older said ...
7
votes
1answer
87 views

Is there a non-grammatical reason why יִשְמָעֵאל is written with the tzeirei under the ayin and not under the aleph?

The word יִשְמָעֵאל is written with the tzeirei under the ayin and not under the aleph (like this: יִשְמָעאֵל). I think that the suffix אֵל refers to Hashem and therefore would have expected the ...
1
vote
0answers
81 views

What is the origin of the dash/hypen in the Torah?

The Torah as it is published in books (that I have seen) is written with hyphens. E.g. Lech-lecha (i.e. the dash between the two words). What are their origin? Given with the letters of the Torah? ...
3
votes
1answer
109 views

Why singular “תַּמְעִיט” in Num. 33:54?

Mas'e 33:50–56: God said to Moses…: Speak to the Jews, and tell them: When you[plural] cross the Jordan to Canaan land: you[plural] shall get rid of the land'...
2
votes
1answer
105 views

וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ vs וישתחו

What is the explanation and reason for the kri-ksiv וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ vs וישתחו in בראשית פרק כ''ז פסוק כ''ט? Please explain how both the kri and the ksiv fit in the pasuk.
0
votes
0answers
37 views

To form, different roots

Are the roots צור (to form, shape, fashion) יצר (to create) and צר (to shape, form, model) related or do they just share similar meanings? Are there any commentaries, scriptures, that connect these ...
3
votes
0answers
85 views

beyom or bayom hashemini Chag Haatzeret hazeh?

Every siddur, machzor, and bentcher that I've noticed writes בְּיוֹם, with a sheva, and then divides up into different cases (חג המצות/חג השבועות/חג הסוכות/השמיני חג העצרת, with additional options in ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

To atone or to cover ? [duplicate]

The root for the word Kippur as in Yom Kippur is כפר but what does it mean linguistically or commentarial? It's explained that the root mean 'to cover' or 'to atone'? Where does this difference ...