Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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136 views

Why plural form? [closed]

I have started watching to the show Shtisel and I couldn’t help notice that sometimes the characters talk between them using the plural forms, even when directed to a single person. For example, on ...
1
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0answers
36 views

Shva Nah and Nach [duplicate]

Our son is in first grade and is almost seven. His yeshiva called us to tell us that he is getting some shva nah's and some shva nach's mixed up. I also noticed this. I am trying to clarify the ...
4
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1answer
79 views

Missing את before a Definite Article

In שמות ,ב:ט, there seems to be a missing את before the definite article הילד. The Minchat Shai gives a cryptic answer (תקח האשה הילד. מטעים ביה אינשי דאמרי את.). Anyone know why the את is absent?
2
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1answer
65 views

What is the form of טבו in מה טבו אהליך יעקב?

In the verse (Num 24,5): מַה־טֹּבוּ אֹהָלֶיךָ יַעֲקֹב מִשְׁכְּנֹתֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ What's the meaning of טובו, could it not be written מה טובים אהליך יעקב?
2
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1answer
78 views

Why “your hand” is spelled ידכה instead of ידך?

In שמות יג:טז: "וְהָיָה לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְכָה וּלְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃" the word ידכה is used. Why is it not spelled ידך?
2
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2answers
97 views

Why are there varying vowels on proper nouns in Megillas Ester?

In Megillas Ester, several proper nouns (such as Mordechai, and Shushan) use komatz and patach interchangeably. In sefardi pronunciation this does not make much of a difference, but in ashkenazi ...
0
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1answer
52 views

What rule governs the varying nikkud in words מִשְׁתֶּה and מִשְׁתֵּה?

What rule governs the varying nikkud in words מִשְׁתֶּה and מִשְׁתֵּה in Megillas Ester? In Ashkenazi pronunciation this makes a difference because the first is read as "Mishte" and the second is read ...
3
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0answers
146 views

“Eis” instead of “es” in the crop b'racha in the Amida

The ninth b'racha of the amida begins with the words בָּרֵךְ עָלֵינוּ ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ אֶת הַשָּׁנָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת כָּל מִינֵי תְּבוּאָתָהּ לְטוֹבָה where both את are vocalized with segol (three ...
7
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2answers
135 views

The definite article (ה) with the evil and good inclinations

The evil inclination gets a definite article - יצר הרע, in common usage (in my experience), and in various sources, e.g. בראתי יצר הרע of 'קידושין ל ב. The good inclination does not get a definite ...
6
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2answers
226 views

Why the person switches in Shemos 14:2-4?

Shemos 14:2-4: דבר, אל-בני ישראל, וישובו ויחנו לפני פי החירות, בין מגדול ובין הים: לפני בעל צפון, נכחו תחנו על-הים.‏ ואמר פרעה לבני ישראל, נבוכים הם בארץ; סגר עליהם, המדבר.‏ ...
3
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1answer
46 views

דבתם רעה or דבתם הרעה?

On Berayshit 37:2, the Torah says: "וַיָּבֵא יוֹסֵף אֶת־דִּבָּתָם רָעָה אֶל־אֲבִיהֶם" According to proper grammar, shouldn't it have said dibbatam ha'ra'ah since ra'ah is modifying a definite noun?...
1
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0answers
49 views

אדנים - Singular vs. Plural

I don't know if this is more Hebrew or if it is about biblical explication. In Malachi 1:6, the text reads וְאִם־אֲדוֹנִ֣ים אָנִי֩ which is translated (on Sefaria and cChabad) as "If I am a master" ...
4
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1answer
125 views

Why does chabad say “Yisbareich” instead of “yisbarach”?

Why according to the Nusach Ari (siddur "Tehilat Hashem") does it say "yisbareich" instead of "yisbarach" in Kaddish?
4
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1answer
314 views

Why ever rely on a vav hahipuch?

There is a grammatical form in the chumash of the vav [hahipuch]1 which turns words written in the past form into future tense and future tense constructs into past. I noted this, I think, pointed out ...
2
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2answers
175 views

Does the Dagesh forte really replace a double letter?

I have read about the Dagesh Forte and how it doubles a letter in Tanach. For example, הָלֵּלוּ has a dagesh forte in the לֵּ. If this dagesh was not there would there really be two ל instead? ...
2
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0answers
42 views

Meaning of ישב אהלים and grammar

We read last Shabbat parshat Toldot in which we find the famous statement in Bereshit 25:27 וְיַעֲקֹב֙ אִ֣ישׁ תָּ֔ם יֹשֵׁ֖ב אֹהָלִֽים The mefarshim deals with the meaning of ישב אהלים, some like ...
3
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2answers
82 views

ברכות switch between 2nd and 3rd person

Why in a ברכה for a commandment (for example, hand washing, Tefillin etc.) do we switch between 'You' ברוך אתה and 'His' במצותיו ? Why don't we say במצותיך ?
2
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2answers
80 views

ברכי נפשי…גדלת מאד - Tehillim 104

In Tehillim 104. The first verse uses the expression גדלת מאד. The vowels under גדלת are 2nd person, past tense. However, in the context of the verse this is not how it is translated. Why is this not ...
3
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0answers
44 views

What verses of Tanach have penultimate stress on every word?

Saying kaparos this year, I noticed that Iyov 33:24, which is included in the rite, has all its words mil'el, i.e. with the penultimate rather than the ultimate syllable stressed. (Most words in ...
7
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2answers
118 views

Pronunciation of בשגם - Patach or Kamatz?

This past Shabbos in shul, I saw a paper about the pronunciation of the word בשגם (Bereishis 6 3). "וַיֹּאמֶר ה' לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה ...
2
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0answers
49 views

Why is the word “Kotveinu” not “Kotbeinu” with a dagesh?

כתבינו לחיים. The tav has a (seemingly) short vowel to close the forst vowel, which sefardim pronounce as the short "kot". There is no meteg before the sh'va of the tav. Why is the bet written without ...
2
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0answers
38 views

מלא יד - full hand, meaning?

I've a question about the combination of words מלא יד as shown in verses like Shemot 29:35, 32:29, Vayikra 8:33, Bamidbar 3:3, 1 Divrei HaYamim 29:5, 2 Divrei HaYamim 6:4, 6:15, 13:9, 29:31 etc... ...
6
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1answer
2k views

What is the difference between adonai and adoni?

I'm sure I've missed something quite obvious here, but I've always been told that adonai is "my Lord", and so I always assumed that it was adon with 'my' stuck to it. But, that would be adoni, with a ...
4
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3answers
115 views

Kohelet 12:13 what does kol ha'adam mean

Looking at the verse of Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) 12:13 I found a couple of translations for כי-זה כל-האדם : ...for this is the whole of man ... for these are for all of mankind ... for these applies ...
10
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2answers
220 views

Why are the words Kiddushin, Erusin, Nissuin plural?

The Mishnah says "האיש מקדש", just like on Shabbos. Nevertheless, on Shabbos we call it a Kiddush (single) but on wedding we call it either Kiddushin, Erusin, Nissuin which are all plural.
12
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1answer
331 views

Why is there a custom to join “Hashem” and “Elokenu” together in the line Al Taazvenu in Shema Kolenu in Selichot

In Shema Kolenu, based on the Posuk in Psalms 38:22 we say the phrase: Al Taazvenu Hashem Elokenu Al tirchak mimenu | Don't leave us Hashem Our God Don't distance yourself from us. The interesting ...
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2answers
73 views

ענה how to define

I would like to know how to define the root word ענה, what actual meanings are given to this root and what is the common denomitor? [I’ve found this root in different verses, so I don’t want to ...
4
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1answer
90 views

Neḥemia 8:7 - Six pazers?

Neḥemia 8:7 וְיֵשׁ֡וּעַ וּבָנִ֡י וְשֵׁרֵ֥בְיָ֣ה ׀ יָמִ֡ין עַקּ֡וּב שַׁבְּתַ֣י ׀ הֽוֹדִיָּ֡֡ה מַעֲשֵׂיָ֡ה קְלִיטָ֣א עֲזַרְיָה֩ יוֹזָבָ֨ד חָנָ֤ן פְּלָאיָה֙ וְהַלְוִיִּ֔֔ם מְבִינִ֥ים אֶת־הָעָ֖ם ...
8
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1answer
100 views

Vowels in tefilat Hashachar

In tefilat "leoylom yehe Odom... " there is a statement ָקַדֵּש אֶת שִמְךָ בְּעוֹלָמֶך Instinctively my tendency is to read beoylomecho with a shevo below the letter beys. But in siddur Tehilas ...
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0answers
71 views

Yehi Ratzon for a Choleh — singular or plural

In the Amida, the bracha of Refa'einu, there is an additional supplication one may add and name a sick person. The text is the same as what is on this card. In my siddurim, I have seen the request in ...
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0answers
58 views

Learning Dikduk on Tish’ah B’Av

Is it permissible to learn dikduk of Biblical Hebrew on tish’ah b’av or is it considered learning Torah? If a grammar or book one is using to learn dikduk quotes pesukim or phrases from תנ״ך to show ...
2
votes
1answer
122 views

translation of vayikra

I believe the vav of vayikra is a vav hamehapeich, meaning it switches yikra from asid to avar. To that extent I heard that the correct translation would be He called, rather than "and He called" (...
1
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1answer
107 views

Difference in suffix regards the word Shabat

Looking at the words שבת שבתון (ex. Vayikra 23:24) and שבתות (ex. Vayikra 23:15) and there root שבת what do endings ון- and ות- indicate here? What do these suffixes mean/indicate? P.s. Are there ...
20
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5answers
640 views

Zeraim Moed Nashim Nezikim Kodshim Taharos - why not Moadim?

The names of the Shisha Sidrei Mishna (Six Orders of Mishnah) are: Zeraim, Moed, Nashim, Nezikim, Kodshim, Taharos. All of them besides Moed are in plural form. However Moed is in singular form. Why ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Bil’am cursing terminology - א.ר.ר, ק.ב.ב and ק.ל.ל

Within the story of Balak and Bil’am I noticed a shift in words for curse and cursing. In Numbers 22:6 Balak asks Bil’am to curse him the Israelites ארה-לי, of which the root seems to be ארר. Numbers ...
13
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5answers
6k views

Meaning and pronunciation of יישר כחך

What is the exact meaning of the phrase "יישר כחך", and what is the gramatically-correct way to pronounce it?
2
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1answer
77 views

הם (heym) vs. המה (heyma)

Why does the Torah use the word המה - HEYMA - in these 19 psukim (20 times) instead of the more common and simple form הם - HEYM ? בראשית ו ד בראשית ז יד בראשית מב לה בראשית מד ג שמות יט יג שמות ...
3
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2answers
98 views

Throwing to vs. Throwing into the pit

I would need some help to answer a grammar question in order to understand the exact meaning a critical piece of the selling of Yosef. The Torah says in Bereshit 37:20 (from www.chabad.org): "...
2
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1answer
78 views

Is the word “Nischazeik” or “Nischazak”?

When completing an entire book of the Torah (ex. Bereishis), it is customary in some communities to recite the words חזק חזק ונתחזק which is translated out to "be strong, be strong, and let us be ...
9
votes
2answers
842 views

מֶה, מָה, מַה - mɛ, mʌ, ma - What's the difference?

What causes the difference in vowelization of the Hebrew word for "what" in the Bible and classical Jewish texts? In some contexts it is מֶה, in others - מָה, and in yet others - מַה. The hypothesis ...
0
votes
1answer
69 views

What rule governs the nekuda under the words אֶת and אֵת? [duplicate]

What rule governs the nekuda under the words אֶת and אֵת in Megillas Ester? In Ashkenazi pronunciation this makes a difference because the first is read as "Es" and the second is read as "Eys."
9
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0answers
497 views

What are the rules for sh'va na?

What is the full list of rules for when to pronounce a sh'va (i.e. na) during tefillah and keriat hatorah? When I was in school, I remember being taught that a sh'va was na in the following 5 cases (...
2
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0answers
54 views

Hebrew grammar according to the Rabbanim

Is there a comprehensive book which collects all opinions from Rishonim all the way down to our times concerning Hebrew grammar rules?
2
votes
1answer
92 views

What is the object of the verbs in Ya'aleh V'yavo?

(This might have to be closed/migrated as about language. I'm not sure.) In the Ya'aleh V'yavo prayer, there is an opening string of verbs. Based on what I recall of Hebrew grammar, each is written ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

Nikkud for Halleluyah

I was learning to chant Tehillim in Israel last year. The Syrians have a tradition for how to chant psalms and they base their tradition off the Aleppo Codex. In their siddurim, Halleluyah is written ...
3
votes
1answer
117 views

Dageish in bin Nun

The Minchat Shai (by R Yedidya Norzi) at the beginning of Shlach says: נון: במקצת ספרי' הנו"ן בדגש, וכן כולם. וא"ת כתב הנו"ן רפה, וכן חביריו In some editions the nun has a dageish, and ...
4
votes
0answers
31 views

A shevah after a Shooruk (milupim) at the beginning of word [duplicate]

This may seem like a simple question but I took a poll and asked some people I know how they pronounce the word וּנְסַפֵּר. I personally say U-N-sa-per. Others said like me and others say Un-sa-per. I ...
4
votes
0answers
126 views

Correct pronunciation of הנתונים בצרה ובשביה

In the Tefillah of "Acheinu", we discuss our brothers who are "נתונים בצרה ובשביה". I have heard these words vowelized with a Pasach under the Beis of both terms (Batzarah Uvashivya, which would mean "...
5
votes
2answers
133 views

Which word is said under the chuppah - זוֹ or זוּ?

The groom tells the bride under the chuppah: הרי את מקודשת לי בטבעת זו כדת משה וישראל Is the word זו pronounced with a cholam (וֹ) as in "zo" or with a shuruk (וּ) as in "zu"? I have seen both ...
1
vote
1answer
155 views

Dageish at the beginning of a word - pronunciation?

For those who pronounce a דגש חזק as a double letter (e.g. הַמֶּלֶךְ as הַמְמֶלֶךְ but with a שוא נח on the first מ''ם), how should a דגש חזק at the beginning of a word be pronounced (e.g. הוֹשִׁיעָה ...