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Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew and Aramaic grammar as related to Judaism.

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Differences in meanings between similar pronouns (עָלָיו, לוֹ); likewise (יהוּ,- יו-)

Is there someone who discusses the differences between pronoun synonyms? I'm thinking of two sets as examples, both of which occur within a few pesukim of each other in perek 5 of Shir HaShirim: 5:4 ...
good_morning's user avatar
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Why don't we say Likboa Mezuzos?

When putting up a mezuzah, we say the blessing Baruch....Asher Kideshanu...Likboa Mezuzah. This blessing is said whether putting up one mezuzah or putting up multiple. Why don't we say likboa Mezuzos ...
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In Bereshit 1:1, are the plurals in השּׁמים significant, or plural in form (ie: "skies") but singular in meaning (ie: "sky"), and how do we determine?

Disclaimer: I don't know Hebrew. In Bereshit 1:1, are the plurals in השּׁמים significant, or plural in form (ie: "skies") but singular in meaning (ie: "sky"), and how do we ...
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What is the source of עתיד בהוראת עבר?

BH In the רמב"ם לעם commentary of Yad HaChazaka on the sentence כל התורה כתבה משה רבנו קדם שימות it says that the word ימות is classified as the concept of עתיד בהוראת עבר (A word that is in the ...
David 's user avatar
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How come It says Katva instead of Katav and not met instead of Sheyamut?

BH In the introduction of Yad Chazaka it says, כל התורה כתבה משה רבנו קדם שימות בכתב ידו. How come it doesn’t just say, כל התורה כתב משה רבנו קדם שמת בכתב ידו ? What’s the grammatical difference?
David 's user avatar
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How to Lein Tehillim קלז

In the cantillation system of Tehillim, there is a type of “trope-phrase” called Oleh Veyored. It looks like one word with a flipped atnach/etnachta (called “galgal”, and the following word with a ma’...
QwertyCTRL.'s user avatar
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ידיים or ידים which is correct

Seen on a Keli with the spelling ידיים. Thinking it might be Sephardi spelling but checked on sefaria Edut Mizrachi and the word was spelled ידים. Would like to know if there is a difference between ...
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Grammatical question related to SHEVA

I'll greatly appreciate it if someone can explain to me: why the sheva on first mem is sheva nach in the following word: וּמְקַיֵם
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Meaning behind אישים plural

I've seen 3 places throughout tanach that use the plural אישים for men as opposed to אנשים. Psalms 141:4 Proverbs 8:4 Isaiah 53:3 Is there any particular reason for this? Also, why isn't this the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Vocalization of תצפה in נשמת כל-חי

In various siddurim I have seen the word תצפה—near the end of the Nishmat prayer of Shabbat and Yom Tov—vocalized as either תְצַפּה or תִצְפּה. Which is correct in this context? (Thanks to Joel K for ...
QwertyCTRL.'s user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
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Re-articulate a sound repeated after a maqaf?

When the same sound is called for on both sides of a maqaf, does this call for a single, prolonged version of that sound, or a second articulation of that sound? E.g. אֶל־לִבּֽוֹ׃ in Gen 6:6. In ...
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Binyan identification in Ibn Ezra on Vayikra 18:3

Vayikra 18:3, with the phrase on which Ibn Ezra elaborates bolded: כמעשה ארץ-מצרים אשר ישבתם-בה לא תעשו וכמעשה ארץ-כנען אשר אני מביא אתכם שמה לא תעשה ובחקתיהם לא תלכו Ibn Ezra: שלא ירגיל אדם ללכת ...
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What is function of בו?

A grammar question הן עבדי אתמך בו בחירי רצתה נפשי נתתי רוחי עליו משפט לגוים יוציא Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall ...
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שמך vocalization before Shema

In Shakharit, the last word of אהבת עולם before the Bracha, is ״שמך״. In all the Siddurim I usually use, that word is vocalized as שִמְךָ. However, I have often heard people read it as שְמֶךָ. As far ...
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Segol pausal form

When a word ends in two Seggols (or a Seggol and Patach, depending on if the final letter is guttural), and the word is in pausal form, the first Seggol is lengthened to a Kamatz. Why is it not ...
QwertyCTRL.'s user avatar
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Dagesh in שישלם

In Tehillim קלז, should I read the Yud in שישלם with or without a dagesh? I’ve seen it both ways. The “without” option makes sense according to an exception in the grammatical rules of Dagesh ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Switching from בוֹ to בָהּ in Shabbat blessing

During Shabbat, it is a common Ashkenazi practice to say three different versions of the Retzei blessing – vah, vo and vam (Magein Avraham to Orach Chayim 268:3 citing Sheyarei Keneset haGedolah). But ...
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Always a Lamed with a Dagesh

I'm looking for the sources that the Minchat Shai uses here in his comment in Shemot 6:10 which is the very first time the Torah records the famous verse וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃ אל ...
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Is it כשב or כבש [duplicate]

Do both כבש and כשב mean sheep? One pasuk for example is כל חלב שור וכשב while a different example is את הכבש אחד. Translations seem to render both as sheep. So why the difference in spelling? Why the ...
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Kriyat haTorah helper materials

I'm looking for a resource where I could find notes for my Bar Mitzvah parsha (Tazria) along the lines of: in 4th it's always "hee" and never "huu" it's always noga in the middle ...
rudolfovic's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
99 views

Shva na after dalet prefix

I noticed that in a few siddurim, in Akdamut (line 30), the shva in סִיּוּמָא דִלְעָלַם is marked as a shva na (vocal shva). And I saw in a single siddur (Artscroll) that in Uva letzion, the shva ...
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What does tzir mean?

In Ovadiah 1:1 we see the word tzir. Ovadiah 1:1 On Sefaria it is translated envoy. In the ArtScroll as messenger. When I asked an Israeli friend of mine he didn’t seem to be familiar with the word or ...
James Read's user avatar
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Text differences between Torah and Siddur [duplicate]

This question is based on 'Az Yashir', that we say everyday during Shacharit. In the first picture below, inside the word circled in red, the first 'mem' has a 'Chataf patach'. It was retrieved from ...
Mars Sojourner's user avatar
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Aramaic dictionary online [duplicate]

I'm looking for a good easy to use online aramaic dictionary that is free to use. Anyone know of one? Aside from jastrow and cal
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3 votes
1 answer
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Online Hebrew Lexicon for learning Tanakh

Shalom, it is my goal to significantly improve my Hebrew this year. It was recommended to me that an online Hebrew Lexicon, which allows you to analyze each word of Tanakh, including grammar, ...
Aryeh Shmuel's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
88 views

Is there an online source for clipped verb forms?

It is wonderful to have pealim.com to look up verb forms, but as far as I know, it does not include clipped forms. Is there any online source that allows looking up clipped forms, or at least a site ...
rivkah's user avatar
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0 answers
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Chanukah greetings proper form

why is the greeting for Hanukah חג אורים שמח "chag urim samach" And not חג אורות?
rivkah's user avatar
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What are the best books that teach Dikduk? [duplicate]

What are the best books to learn Dikduk? Both Lashon Hakodesh and Rabbinic/Mishnaic Hebrew.
Bukh's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Should we be careful not to mispunctuate prayers?

There are a few times that we ten to (from personal experience) punctuate parts of songs/ piyutim/ prayers wrong. For example, in Modeh Ani people tend to punctuate as follows: שהחזרת בי נשמתי בחמלה ...
Lo ani's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Question on the Grammar in Genesis 27:15 and Exodus 12:16

I am curious regarding the phrase "bigdei Esav, b’nah hagadol, hachamudos" (Genesis (Toldot) Chapter 27, Verse 15). Beged is masculine, referring to clothing, and chamudos, seemingly related ...
Truth seeker 's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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First-person grammatical changes in tefillah [duplicate]

Someone mentioned to me the idea that women should be saying "Modah ani" in the morning instead of "Modeh ani," which, grammatically speaking, makes sense. I've never seen any ...
Yehuda's user avatar
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2 answers
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What does midbar mean?

Midbar is commonly translated as desert or wilderness. It seems to come from the root davar (word) so I'm guessing the idea is that a midbar is a place where survival is most evidently dependent on ...
James Read's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
156 views

Translating Genesis 1:1 "בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית" to "in the beginning"

Apologies if this is a stupid question (or belongs in a different group). Since I'm not Jewish & only beginning to learn Hebrew I lack the background to pose an intelligent question. English uses ...
StevePoling's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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Aser titasher Talmud bavli Taanith 9a-b

As for the advice to give maaser kesafim, מעשׁר כספים to become rich: Talmud Bavli Taánith 9a-b עַשֵּׂ֣ר תְּעַשֵּׂ֔ר becomes תִּתְעַשֵּׁר עַשֵּׂ֣ר. Why does the Talmud uses ithpael ThiTh’ASheeR in ...
Diederik Ouwehand's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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Ambiguous cantillation notes

Today, while teaching someone the verse Genesis 2:7, I had cause to be puzzled as to the correct accentuation of its first word, וַיִּיצֶר֩. I corrected the student's milra accentuation and said it ...
Moongazer's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
133 views

Shva in היצור/היצורים

I have a similar question to Why is it a sheva na in ha-leviyim? I have seen some siddurim indicate a shva nach in the yud of שֶׁכֵּן חובַת כָּל הַיְצוּרִים (shacharis of Shabbos, before yishtabach). ...
JMS's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Nikkud of the word ים

Why in Tanach, does the word יָם always have a Komatz, even when נסמך/connected to the next word, such as יָם המלח and יָם פלשתים and even when attached with a מקף such as יָם-כנרת (Bamidbar 34:11) ...
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2 votes
1 answer
119 views

what is the difference between שלל, ביזה, and חרם?

We know that there are no true synonyms in the Torah. What does each of these connote? (to pass the test here - i googled and did not find anything)
eliyahu's user avatar
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Psalms/Tehillim 18:26

In Psalms 18:26: עִם־חָסִ֥יד תִּתְחַסָּ֑ד עִם־גְּבַ֥ר תָּ֜מִ֗ים תִּתַּמָּֽם Why is the word עם־גבר vocalised as עִם־גְּבַ֥ר ʕim-ggəvár instead of עִם־גֶּבֶר ʕim-ggέvɛr? I am asking this because ...
Leaky Nun's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Difference between chataf patach alef and kamatz alef

In yoel 2:27 The pasuk states וִידַעְתֶּ֗ם כִּ֣י בְקֶ֤רֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אָ֔נִי וַאֲנִ֛י What is the difference in nekudot usage of the words אני? More specifically, the difference between chataf ...
Shababnik's user avatar
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Kammatz katan in Kaddish

In the Kaddish, the words בעלמא, לעלם, ולעלמי, עלמיא are all related to the Hebrew word עולם, from which I conclude that in each of those four words, the kammatz vowel below the ע is a kammatz katan ...
Moongazer's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
174 views

What is the difference in meaning between the words עֵ֭דֹתֶיךָ and עֵדְוֺתֶ֥יךָ

The word for “Your decrees” (Sefaria) appears in Tehillim 119 (& elsewhere) in two forms with and without the letter “vav”. The meanings seem to be identical but the pronunciation is different. ...
Avrohom Yitzchok's user avatar
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מַה נִּשְּׁתַּנָה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מִכָּל הַלֵּילוֹת - What is the etymology of נִּשְּׁתַּנָה (nishtana)? [closed]

I can find לְהִשְׁתַּנּוֹת where נִשְׁתַּנֶּה (nishtane) would translate to "we will change (ourselves)", but i cannot find where נִּשְּׁתַּנָה (nishtana) derives from. Or is it just old ...
Guenther's user avatar
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1 answer
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Hei hayedia on second word of a smichut pair

I recently corrected someone's use of beit hamidrash to beit-midrash, explaining that it is a smichut pair like the similar pairs, beit-knesset and beit-sefer, and that the added hei is only ...
Moongazer's user avatar
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0 answers
65 views

Is there a Jewish database on Tanach syntax?

Westminster is a downloadable version of the Leningrad Codex [version of Tanach], http://tanach.us/Tanach.xml. One thing they have there is a database that includes syntax for all of Tanach. It was a ...
MichoelR's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
149 views

What is the difference between the פְּעַל and פְּעֵל in Aramaic?

[As a preface I recognize this could be seen as an off-topic language question, but the question came up in the context of Gemara study using a book explaining the Grammar of the Bavli specifically ...
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0 answers
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Does it suffice to know the pronounciation of a name without its spelling?

Today, I asked a friend what his Hebrew name is to daven for him. He said his full name but did not know the spelling of his mother's name (Perel). This made me wonder: Is there any relevance to the ...
Yehuda's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
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What is the translation of דורמיטא? (Dormita)

What is the translation of דורמיטא? (Dormita) Is this something from the realms of kabbalah? When I searched Sefaria here, I found it mentioned many times in the context of Kabbalah, but I still don't ...
The Targum's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
171 views

What are some good resources for advanced Biblical Hebrew study?

I have been studying Biblical Hebrew for over a year, and have come to the point where I can read most of the prose text in the Hebrew Bible without trouble. I started with a beginner's textbook and ...
CMK's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
45 views

What is the proper suffix for a deceased person? [duplicate]

What do the different suffixes mean, what are the differences between them, and which suffix is used for which people? Example: ז"ל, זצ"ל, זצוק"ל, זי"ע, נבג"מ (This question ...
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