Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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32 views

“Vimheyra b’yameinu” in Got fun Avrom

Everywhere else in the siddur the phrase is spelled “bimheyra v’yameinu” but in Got fun Avrom it is spelled “vimheyra b’yameinu.” Why is this the case, is it because this is how it is pronounced in ...
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31 views

What is the difference between a “long” and “short” vowel? [closed]

In Hebrew grammar books, the terms תנועה גדולה and תנועה קטנה are used. Based on how I read (~Syrian/Iraqi style), the literal translations "big vowel" and "small vowel" seem to make sense i.e., big ...
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3answers
207 views

What are the rabbinic (hebrew) words that could equate to “Anti-Torah”?

What are the rabbinic (hebrew) words that could equate to "Anti-Torah"? I am hoping there is only one. In English, I would say the word "Anti-Torah" equates to "lawless" or "lawlessness". When I ...
17
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2answers
788 views

Aleph with a Dagesh

In four places in Tanakh, our text has an aleph with a dagesh: Gen 43:26, Lev 23:17, Job 33:21, and Ezra 8:18. What is the significance of this, and for the first two examples, how would you indicate ...
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1answer
127 views

Function of a dagesh

Occasionally Hebrew letters in Tanach have a dagesh mark. I saw one in a khaf sofit, as at the end of the second line of the Priestly Blessing and the 4th line of Ashrei, and it sparked my interest. ...
2
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1answer
86 views

“Tekhelet” and “Shechelet”?

Might there be some relationship between the words "tekhelet" (תְּכֵלֶת ; the Biblical blue dye) and "shechelet" (שחֵלֶת ; one of the four named ingredients of the holy incense, listed in Exodus 30:34)...
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2answers
77 views

Genesis 18:21 then I will know?

I find it strange that Genesis/Bereshit 18:21 seems to imply that G-d has limited knowledge of what's going on in Sodom and Amorah, so I wondered if the word eda'ah (אֵדָעָה) could be translated as: ...
2
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1answer
110 views

Use of definite article (ה) in יהי רצון … מצות התלוים

The paragraph after the ברכה (b'racha) of ציצת (tzitzis) ends with the expression " וְתַרְיַ"ג מִצְות הַתְּלוּיִם בָּהּ". My question is why does the word "התלוים" start with "ה"? It appears like ...
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31 views

Help finding source ונטמתם

There seems to be this teaching (gemarah) in the Talmud (Yoma 39) on Vayikra/Leviticus 11:43 regards the phrase ונטמתם. Because this is written without the expected alef it could be read as v’nitamtem ...
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101 views

Put a samech in Kel Adon?

The piyyut Kel Adon (below), the Song of Creation which we recite or sing on Shabbat morning, is an acrostic: Each verse begins with a different letter of the alphabet, in order. Except for "Smechim ...
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42 views

Where can I find how many roots the author needs to compose for each book of the Tenach

For example: I am reading now the book of Joshua in Hebrew. It looks to me quite simple language. The author uses often the same terms. Poetry and wisdom-litterature is much more complex. My ...
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2answers
146 views

Leshabeichacha and loseis/latet shevach

Towards the beginning of the נוסח אשכנז version of davening, in the section beginning לעולם יהא אדם ירא שמים, we say as follows: לפיכך אנחנו חייבים להודות לך ולשבחך ולפארך ולברך ולקדש ולתת שבח ...
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1answer
35 views

Translating וידבר using BDB Lexicon and Gesenius' Grammar

Context I am practicing my biblical Hebrew by translating the weekly Parshah. As resources, I have the Brown-Driver-Briggs (BDB) Lexicon (coded with Strong's concordance numbers) and Gesenius' ...
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1answer
75 views

“Good trees” grammar in the blessing on trees

I see* various versions of the blessing on seeing trees: most seem to refer to good trees as "אילנות טובות", while some refer to them as "אילנות טובים". (Grammatically, as far as I know, "טובים" is ...
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1answer
51 views

Does Avraham invite one of his visitors inside?

I've a question regards the following phrase from Genesis 18:10: "וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו". "And Sarah was listening at the opening of the tent, and it was behind him." "And ...
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2answers
202 views

Why does Artscroll indicate that the מ of למנצח should have a שוע נע?

The Artscroll siddur indicates that the שוע on מ of למנצח (e.g. תהלים כ א) is a שוע נע, but I am not sure why this is the case. The vowel beforehand is a פתח (a תנועה קטנה) and none of the other rules ...
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1answer
98 views

What or is there a difference in Adonai and Adonoy?

I have just started learning Hebrew and I found a transliteration for the after meal blessing which includes Adonai and Adonoy; what is the difference between the two? “Baruch ha-gever asher yivtach ...
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Is A Plural Verb Indicative on Singular or Plural When Modifying Elokim

Rashi on Shemot 32:1 says bnei Yisrael desired many gods (ד״ה ״אשר ילכו לפנינו״) because as Be’er Mayim Chaim points out, the verse uses the plural verb ילכו instead of ילך. There really should be no ...
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2answers
53 views

Yeraeh el HaAdon, or Yeraeh es HaAdon

The mitzvah of aliya leregel, the thrice-yearly pilgrimage festival, appears a few times in the Torah. In Exodus 23:17 it's written: שָׁלֹ֥שׁ פְּעָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה יֵרָאֶה֙ כָּל־זְכ֣וּרְךָ֔ אֶל־...
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1answer
51 views

Why is וְאַתָּה followed twice by a future and once by a command?

At the beginning of T'tzave, Exodus 27:20–28:3, we have three divine commands to Moses beginning with "וְאַתָּה / v'ata / and thou". Verse 20: וְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל ...
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2answers
37 views

Why is the making of the ephod expressed in plural?

The beginning of Tetzaveh in Shemot 28:3, G-d tells Moshe to speak to the "people whom G-d inspired with knowledge of the heart" to make the garments for Aharon and his sons. In viewing the language ...
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50 views

HaShem's Name After The Letters of ו / כ / ל / ב

Not sure if this was asked before... Statement: When the letters of ו / כ / ל / ב , (which spells the word “and Kalayv”) come in front the names of HaShem of: אֲ-דֹנָי / אֱ-לֹהֵי / אֱ-...
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74 views

Which is the correct pronounciation? [closed]

Which is correct? Mesirut nefesh or mesirat nefesh? I have always used mesirut, but see mesirat also.
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1answer
83 views

Translation of karmelit

In an article I read online: http://www.tosfosinenglish.com/pdf/Shabos/6a7karmlis.pdf I read the following: כרמל (Karmel) is comprised of two (opposite) terms: רך with the meaning soft and not yet ...
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101 views

Why is the word כטוב spelled sometimes with a Sheva and other times with a Patach?

Why is the word כטוב spelled sometimes with a Sheva (as in Ester 1:10), and sometimes with a Patach (as in Ester 3:11)? Ester 1:10: בַּיּוֹם, הַשְּׁבִיעִי, כְּטוֹב לֵב-הַמֶּלֶךְ, בַּיָּיִן--אָמַר ...
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1answer
78 views

Why switch to the singular in Sh'mot 17:3?

In parshat B'shalach, the people complain a bunch. They do so in the plural form unless the verb is connected to their identity as a nation, a collective singular. However, in 17:3, the text moves ...
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243 views

הדרן עֲלָךְ מסכת פלונית - why not עֲלִיךְ?

The standard text for a siyum on a masechta, as printed in Gemaras, is הדרן עֲלָךְ מסכת פלונית מסכת seems to be feminine, so shouldn't it be עֲלִיךְ, with similar changes for the other words? As ...
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18 views

Exodus 15:11 Parasha Beshalach [duplicate]

In Exodus 15:11 the first chaf doesn’t have a dot (dagesh) but the second one does: Mi-chamocha, and then Mi kamocha. The meaning of both phrases is the same: “Who is like you?” The first Mi-chamocha ...
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1answer
139 views

nach nistar yud, followed by a yud

I noticed that the Artscroll siddur puts a line in אל-בני | ישראל at the beginning of the third parsha of Shema, which tells you not to merge the words together. Are they correct? The yud at the end ...
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61 views

Dikduk- yud suffix on a hebrew verb

In Parshas Bo 10:1 it states למען שתי the yud here indicates that Hashem is doing the placing. I was wondering that generally, the yud indicates possessiveness on nouns, however over here it is ...
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57 views

Targum of Shem HaShem

Why do we find that there is no differentiation in targum between the The four letter Shem HaShem and Elokeinu, they are both translated as Yud Yud.
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19 views

Two Consecutive Segol's at End: When They Change To Kamatz & When Not [duplicate]

I used to think it was a hard fast rule that when a word ends in two consecutive segols such as: אֶרֶץ (or כסף) it will change the first Segol to a Kamatz as in אָרֶץ. However, it was pointed out to ...
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1answer
60 views

Difference between “face of” and “faces of” in Hebrew

If you want to say "face of gold" (sing.) in Hebrew, you say פני זהב. If you want to say "faces of gold" (plural) in Hebrew, you say _______. Part of the difficulty is that the Hebrew word for "...
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68 views

Silent sheva after long vowels

I assume most have heard about the 5 famous rules of Elia Levita regarding the vocal sheva. His rules tend to work well in practice, even the third, much debated rule about the concept of long vowels (...
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5answers
618 views

Female praying in masculine language

When women daven (pray), even by ourselves, it is convention to daven with male-gendered words ("modeh" vs "moda" as one of many examples). Why is this; are there sources that say we should be doing ...
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2answers
258 views

Dreamed vs. Dreaming a Dream

Posting for another friend. When does Lashon Hakodesh (throughout Tanach) use "ויחלם" (and he dreamed") by itself and when is "ויחלם חלום" ("and he dreamed a dream") used? It seems that most of the ...
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1answer
122 views

Redundant Direct Objects: ני- and אתי in Same Clause?

Breishit 30:20 says: "וַתֹּאמֶר לֵאָה זְבָדַנִי אֱלֹקים אֹתִי זֵבֶד טוֹב..." What is the function of the word אֹתִי? Since the objective pronominal suffix ני- from זְבָדַנִי expresses the direct ...
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1answer
95 views

How Many vav Hahipuchs in each of the 24 books of Tenach

How Many vav Hahipuchs (Conversive vav) are in each of the 24 books of Tenach compared with the number of letters / verses in that book. As far as I know they are only in Tenach rather than Mishna or ...
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0answers
36 views

Pesukim in Chumash where Rashi adds in extra words or switches order

I have been trying to remember examples in chumash where Rashi uses dikduk rules to significantly change the order of words or add words to a passuk so that it has another meaning. What are some ...
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1answer
102 views

Dagesh after an interrogative hey

Bereshit 18:21 אֵֽרְדָה-נָּ֣א וְאֶרְאֶ֔ה הַכְּצַֽעֲקָתָ֛הּ הַבָּ֥אָה אֵלַ֖י עָשׂ֣וּ | כָּלָ֑ה וְאִם-לֹ֖א אֵדָֽעָה:‏ I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according ...
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1answer
84 views

Ascending or descending order when mentioning units in a number?

I noticed an apparent conflict when the Torah uses units of a large number. It seems to occur with mentioning someone's age. Examples: Breishit 23:1 Sarah lived 100 years and 20 years and 7 years ...
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0answers
44 views

ידע תדע what kind of knowing is this?

In a couple of verses like Genesis 15:13, 1 Samuel 28:1, 1 Kings 2:37, 2:42 and Proverbs 27:23 we find two verbal repetition: 'ידע תדע' quite literally translated as 'knowing you will know'. I know ...
4
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2answers
138 views

'עם' & 'את' based words in the story of Lot and Avram

I don't know the exact sources but I remembered some commentaries from the Malbim and Vilna Gaon which point out a difference between 'את'-based words and 'עם'-based words (both translated to mean '...
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2answers
79 views

What is the explanation of spelling the same word with a Patach instead of a Sh'va in Megillat Esther?

In Megillat Esther, why is the word "maidens" spelled with a sh'va under the first letter (נְעָרוֹת) in verses 2:2, 2:8, 2:9, but with a patach (נַעֲרוֹת) in verse 4:4?
2
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2answers
81 views

הוצא vs הַיְצֵא

What is the reason for the kri ksiv in בראשית פרק ח' פסוק י''ז, in which the ksiv is הוצא but the kri הַיְצֵא? I would like to know the reason for how the kri fits in to the pasuk and how the ksiv ...
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0answers
22 views

How does one divide the syllables of the word לְצַוְּארֵ֥י (Judges / Shoftim 5:30)

I came across an anomaly while dividing Hebrew words into their proper syllables. The word is לְצַוְּארֵ֥י. At first I thought to divide it as: |לְ|צַ|וְּ|ארֵ֥י but realized that the Aleph Nacha (אלף ...
1
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0answers
71 views

Closed one-syllable words — patach or kamatz?

For closed one-syllable Hebrew words that take only a patach or kamatz (יָ֥ד, עַ֖ל, רַ֛ק, etc.), is there any rhyme or reason as to which ones can only take one and which the other, or is it just ...
1
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1answer
104 views

Yehoshua 8:30- יבנה= built or will build?

Yehoshua (8:30) אָ֣ז יִבְנֶ֤ה יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ מִזְבֵּ֔חַ לַֽיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֖ר עֵיבָֽל׃ At that time Joshua built an altar to the LORD, the God of Israel, on Mount Ebal, (...
4
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2answers
105 views

Dikduk question on psalm 93

This question bothers me every Friday night; I have looked at various Bible translations and traditional commentators but have not found an answer. In Psalm 93 we have the phrase: נָֽשְׂא֤וּ ...
8
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1answer
129 views

Why isn't המלך המשפט a grammatical mistake?

During these ימים נוראים we finish the 11th blessing of the amida with the words המלך המשפט. What does this exactly, literally mean? Melech and mishpat are both nouns, so it would seem that we need a ...

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