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Questions tagged [grammar-dikduk]

Questions about Hebrew and Aramaic grammar as related to Judaism.

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15 votes
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Leshabeichacha and loseis/latet shevach

Towards the beginning of the נוסח אשכנז version of davening, in the section beginning לעולם יהא אדם ירא שמים, we say as follows: לפיכך אנחנו חייבים להודות לך ולשבחך ולפארך ולברך ולקדש ולתת שבח ...
Moshe Steinberg's user avatar
9 votes
0 answers
207 views

Proper Reading of the Word זועה

The word זועה appears six times in tanach: Yeshayahu 28:19 Yirmiyahu 15:4 Yirmiyahu 24:9 Yirmiyahu 29:18 Yirmiyahu 34:17 Divrei Hayamim II 29:8 In each one of these instances except the first, the ...
Jewels's user avatar
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7 votes
0 answers
97 views

Shva na after dalet prefix

I noticed that in a few siddurim, in Akdamut (line 30), the shva in סִיּוּמָא דִלְעָלַם is marked as a shva na (vocal shva). And I saw in a single siddur (Artscroll) that in Uva letzion, the shva ...
JMS's user avatar
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6 votes
0 answers
86 views

Why is there no דגש in the כ״ף of הכזונה in פרשת וישלח לד:לא?

I know that the rule of ה״א התימה is that it usually takes a הֲ unless it precedes a שוא, such as here in הַכְזוֹנָה, where it then just takes a הַ and the following letter doesn't have a דגש in order ...
SY Eisenberg's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
57 views

Grammar and word choice of the Mi Shebeirach for Yom Tov

On Pesach, Shavuot, and Sukkot, the phrase "ויזכה לעלות לרגל" - "he should merit to go up [to the Beit Hamikdash]" is added to the end of the Mi Shebeirach after each aliyah. I've ...
Moshe Katz's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
193 views

What is the proper voweling (Nikud) for Metatron?

I have seen many variations of this and wonder if anyone could tell me which is the most correct? These variations include: מֶטָטְרוֹן‎‎ (Meṭāṭ'rōn) מְטַטְרוֹן‎ (Măṭaṭ'rōn) מֵיטַטְרוֹן‎ (Mēyṭaṭ'rōn) ...
עמנואל-העבד's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
527 views

Why are Hebrew cardinal numbers switched to the other gender after the first two?

When counting in Hebrew, the first two cardinal numbers are in the correct gender, but all subsequent numbers seem to be in the opposite gender? For example: Feminine Numbers are: אַחַתֹ-שְתַּיִםֹ-...
Shmuel Goldstein's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
59 views

Could the trop of מה-פעל אל be a me'ayla?

כִּ֤י לֹא־נַ֙חַשׁ֙ בְּיַעֲקֹ֔ב וְלֹא־קֶ֖סֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כָּעֵ֗ת יֵאָמֵ֤ר לְיַעֲקֹב֙ וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מַה־פָּ֖עַל אֵֽל׃ ‏ Bamidbar 23:23 The word פעל is mile'eil (according to R' Breuer's conclusion ...
Heshy's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
527 views

Ha’am ha’aretz or am ha’aretz?

In yechezk’el (45:16): כֹּ֚ל הָעָ֣ם הָאָ֔רֶץ יִהְי֖וּ אֶל־הַתְּרוּמָ֣ה הַזֹּ֑את לַנָּשִׂ֖יא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃- Ha’am Ha’aretz. Yet just a few pesukim later, (46:3): וְהִשְׁתַּחֲו֣וּ עַם־הָאָ֗רֶץ ...
Lo ani's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
109 views

Another doubt in Zachor?

Many shuls read the last pasuk of Parshat Zachor twice, once with "zeicher" and once with "zecher", based on a (possibly not so valid) doubt in how the word should be read. The Tikkun Simanim brings ...
Heshy's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
255 views

Why does Rashi call tzeirei and segol "kamatz katan" and "patach katan"

Rashi often refers to tzeirei as "kamatz katan" and segol as "patach katan". Why? In what sense are they smaller versions of kamatz and patach? I understand that kamatz and tzeirei are תנועות ...
Heshy's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
105 views

Sequences of Binyanim with Infinitive Construct

We find in Tanakh the grammatical construction: infinitive absolute + finite verb, where the two verbs are of the same root. For example, in Genesis 22:17, we have two occurences (text and ...
magicker72's user avatar
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5 votes
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Grammatical origins of names in Tanach

Almost all nouns in Hebrew fit into one of several standard "templates". For example, מִבְחָן comes from the root בחנ combined with the pattern מִפְעָל (already used by many other words). There would ...
Ypnypn's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
136 views

Psalms/Tehillim 18:26

In Psalms 18:26: עִם־חָסִ֥יד תִּתְחַסָּ֑ד עִם־גְּבַ֥ר תָּ֜מִ֗ים תִּתַּמָּֽם Why is the word עם־גבר vocalised as עִם־גְּבַ֥ר ʕim-ggəvár instead of עִם־גֶּבֶר ʕim-ggέvɛr? I am asking this because ...
Leaky Nun's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
169 views

When did the gematria for 16 become ט"ז as oppose to י-ו?

I've been going through some records (e.g. from the old Jewish cemetery in Worms, Germany) from the 1200's and 1300's, and I've noticed that the gematria for 16 is yud-vav, as opposed to tes-zayin. ...
Shmerel's user avatar
  • 41
4 votes
0 answers
91 views

What are the rules for the Kaph getting a dagesh at the end of the word?

Specifically, in Naso 6:25, VeChuNeKah while in the previous pasuk none of them have the dagesh as if often the case. I presume it has something to do with the dagesh chazek in the nun. How does ...
Judd Cohen's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
180 views

"Eis" instead of "es" in the crop b'racha in the Amida

The ninth b'racha of the amida begins with the words בָּרֵךְ עָלֵינוּ ה' אֱ-לֹהֵינוּ אֶת הַשָּׁנָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת כָּל מִינֵי תְּבוּאָתָהּ לְטוֹבָה where both את are vocalized with segol (three ...
WAF's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
158 views

Correct pronunciation of הנתונים בצרה ובשביה

In the Tefillah of "Acheinu", we discuss our brothers who are "נתונים בצרה ובשביה". I have heard these words vowelized with a Pasach under the Beis of both terms (Batzarah Uvashivya, which would mean "...
רבות מחשבות's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
90 views

Why are the Kadmonites singled out?

With my limited understanding of dikduk I don't know what the significance of the ־ symbol is. Maybe it indicates that two word should be read together? I know grammatically it turns an אֵ֖ת to an ...
robev's user avatar
  • 19.8k
4 votes
0 answers
140 views

Why do third-person singular female qal verbs lack a gaʿya?

The word הָיְתָ֣ה appears in the model Masoretic codices without a gaʿya on the initial ה in several places (e.g. Isaiah 1:21 in L [facsimile] & A). Likewise, זָכְרָ֥ה lacks a gaʿya (e.g. Nehamiah ...
Argon's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
64 views

On the Root 'ע'ט'פ (and 'ע'ט'ה)

The Lishon Hakodesh root 'ע'ט'פ seems to take on a different meaning in various canons/eras: Pentateuch: In the discussion regarding Jacob's manipulation of Laban's flock, we encounter the verse (...
intuit's user avatar
  • 400
4 votes
0 answers
146 views

Difference between 'rafa' and 'ripa'

The root רפא, "heal", is used in various places in Tanach, sometimes in binyan paal and sometimes in binyan piel. I wonder what the difference is between these. Does any Tanach commentator, or the ...
msh210's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
64 views

Should we be careful not to mispunctuate prayers?

There are a few times that we ten to (from personal experience) punctuate parts of songs/ piyutim/ prayers wrong. For example, in Modeh Ani people tend to punctuate as follows: שהחזרת בי נשמתי בחמלה ...
Lo ani's user avatar
  • 4,558
3 votes
0 answers
69 views

Nikkud of the word ים

Why in Tanach, does the word יָם always have a Komatz, even when נסמך/connected to the next word, such as יָם המלח and יָם פלשתים and even when attached with a מקף such as יָם-כנרת (Bamidbar 34:11) ...
שלום's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
40 views

Why is there variation in number regarding entering the land?

In some situations, the Torah, when issuing a commandment regarding being in Israel uses the singular and in other cases, the plural: Dev 26:1 -- וְהָיָה֙ כִּֽי־תָב֣וֹא אֶל־הָאָ֔רֶץ Bam 15:2 -- כִּ֣י ...
rosends's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
89 views

Why don’t we say ״המלביש ערומים״ in the morning blessings?

It says (Yerushalmi Berachos 6:1) that the reason we don’t say ״motzi lechem min ha’aretz”(which would have been more preferable) but “hamotzi”, is in order to separate between the מ״ם of “ha’olam” ...
שלום's user avatar
  • 3,272
3 votes
0 answers
94 views

Any digitized text that marks the shva na?

Does anyone know of any downloadable digitized text that marks the 'shva na's? For now, I am looking specifically for a text of Megilas Ester. But I would appreciate all of Tanach and also the siddur. ...
JackD's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
0 answers
121 views

Who teaches Tanakh?

I would like to study Tanakh in its entirety with a focus on dikduk, hebrew language, basic meaning/commentators, and possibly cantillation. I am not very self-motivated so I would prefer to join a ...
Yehuda's user avatar
  • 749
3 votes
0 answers
102 views

Explanation of number shifts in the Tanach

In many places in Tanach, the grammatical number (plural or singular) shifts. One famous example has to do with the rocks that Yaakov put under his head. When he woke, the "rock" is referred ...
rosends's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
100 views

What is the rationale for only marking certain letters with sheva, when they are the last letter in a word?

In printed and manuscript editions of Tanach, I've noticed that a sheva on the final letter of a word is almost never marked, and is meant to be inferred. The two exceptions I've come across are: A ...
Joel K's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
43 views

Smichut or Noun and adjective in Lashon remiya (Tehilim 120)

In Tehilim 120:2 and 3 we find lashon remiya (לשון רמייה) where lamed has qamets: יְֽהוָ֗ה הַצִּ֣ילָה נַ֭פְשִׁי מִשְּׂפַת־שֶׁ֑קֶר מִלָּשׁ֥וֹן רְמִיָּֽה׃ מַה־יִּתֵּ֣ן לְ֭ךָ וּמַה־יֹּסִ֥יף לָ֗ךְ ...
Pnina Younger's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
48 views

Mappik hei in word in Onkelos Devarim 23:11?

The Artscroll Chumash has no mappik hei in the word "mikrei" in the phrase "mikrei leilya" in Devarim 23:11 in Onkelos. However, I have seen some non-Artscroll Chumashim that have the mappik hei in ...
user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
51 views

What verses of Tanach have penultimate stress on every word?

Saying kaparos this year, I noticed that Iyov 33:24, which is included in the rite, has all its words mil'el, i.e. with the penultimate rather than the ultimate syllable stressed. (Most words in ...
msh210's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
100 views

אדנים - Singular vs. Plural

I don't know if this is more Hebrew or if it is about biblical explication. In Malachi 1:6, the text reads וְאִם־אֲדוֹנִ֣ים אָנִי֩ which is translated (on Sefaria and Chabad) as "If I am a master&...
rosends's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
64 views

Invalid verb conjugation מצות יאכל

In Shemos 13:7, the verse uses the passive form מצות יאכל, where the subject is feminine plural but the verb is masculine singular. A similar occurrence is in Pinchas for Pesach korbanos (Bamidbar 28:...
gt6989b's user avatar
  • 3,099
3 votes
0 answers
127 views

beyom or bayom hashemini Chag Haatzeret hazeh?

Every siddur, machzor, and bentcher that I've noticed writes בְּיוֹם, with a sheva, and then divides up into different cases (חג המצות/חג השבועות/חג הסוכות/השמיני חג העצרת, with additional options in ...
Heshy's user avatar
  • 9,224
3 votes
0 answers
95 views

Parsing Shehechiyyanu

When reading the megilloth in shul from a klaf, many say the blessing of shehechiyyanu1. I have noticed that many people sing this blessing in its own tune (ie. not in trope), but I have also heard ...
magicker72's user avatar
  • 10.1k
3 votes
0 answers
137 views

"This meat is for Peisach" with a tzeirei

Based on this question. Many (most?) Ashkenazim in America say Pesach, with a segol, when talking about the korban pesach, but Peisach, with a tzeirei, to refer to the holiday. As far as I know, the ...
Heshy's user avatar
  • 9,224
3 votes
0 answers
422 views

Comparison of editions of Shas menukad

As far as I'm aware, there are at least three editions of the Talmud which are currently available with nikkud in the daf itself (the Steinsaltz/Koren, the Tuvia's Judaica, and the Oz Vehadar). In my ...
Noach MiFrankfurt's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
455 views

HaSatan how should it be described?

The Babylonian Talmud (Bava Bathra 16a) states that the Evil Inclincation (Yetzer ha-Ra), the Angel of Death and HaSatan are identical. The Talmud seems to distinguish between HaSatan outside man (...
Levi's user avatar
  • 7,366
3 votes
0 answers
323 views

Vav/Waw Hahipuch (Conversive Waw) And the Sheva/Shewa that follows

A topic came up regarding pronuncation in a class i was recently in. The class is about leading prayers, and a question came up regarding how to pronounce certain words that have a shewa following the ...
Aaron's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
121 views

Why is the word ראש singular by Orev and Ze'ev in Sefer Shoftim

The pasuk in Shoftim 7:25 teaches us וַֽיִּלְכְּד֡וּ שְׁנֵֽי־שָׂרֵ֨י מִדְיָ֜ן אֶת־עֹרֵ֣ב וְאֶת־זְאֵ֗ב וַיַּהַרְג֨וּ אֶת־עוֹרֵ֤ב בְּצוּר־עוֹרֵב֙ וְאֶת־זְאֵב֙ הָרְג֣וּ בְיֶֽקֶב־זְאֵ֔ב וַֽיִּרְדְּפ֖וּ ...
Ploni Almoni's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
289 views

Dagesh on Hatslicha nna

I see a machloket sidurim and Tanachim about the Na of Hasem Hatlicha Na in the hallel. Many sidurim was with dagesh on Hoshianna and not on hatslicha na. I searched an explanation. The explanation ...
kouty's user avatar
  • 22.8k
3 votes
1 answer
162 views

Is the word "Nischazeik" or "Nischazak"?

When completing an entire book of the Torah (ex. Bereishis), it is customary in some communities to recite the words חזק חזק ונתחזק which is translated out to "be strong, be strong, and let us ...
ezra's user avatar
  • 18.7k
2 votes
0 answers
42 views

Switching from בוֹ to בָהּ in Shabbat blessing

During Shabbat, it is a common Ashkenazi practice to say three different versions of the Retzei blessing – vah, vo and vam (Magein Avraham to Orach Chayim 268:3 citing Sheyarei Keneset haGedolah). But ...
Kazi bácsi's user avatar
  • 7,704
2 votes
1 answer
115 views

Ambiguous cantillation notes

Today, while teaching someone the verse Genesis 2:7, I had cause to be puzzled as to the correct accentuation of its first word, וַיִּיצֶר֩. I corrected the student's milra accentuation and said it ...
Moongazer's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
62 views

Shabbat vs. Other days, Singular vs. Plural

Why, in middle blessing of the amida for Shabbat is the blessing's conclusion in the singular (mekadesh hashabbat) while for holidays and Rosh Chodesh, the wording is in the plural (z'manim and roshei ...
rosends's user avatar
  • 38.3k
2 votes
0 answers
49 views

Drashos based on the doubled verb

In Menachos 17b, the gemara explains a drasha: ור"א א"כ לכתוב רחמנא אם האכל האכל א"נ אם יאכל יאכל מאי האכל יאכל שמעת מינה תרתי And what would Rabbi Eliezer respond? He would say that ...
MichoelR's user avatar
  • 3,556
2 votes
2 answers
196 views

Talking to other people inside a bracha

A bracha always starts and/or ends with ברוך אתה ה'. However, in a few selected brachos, we also talk to other people in the second person in the middle of the bracha. Examples: The bracha in a ...
Heshy's user avatar
  • 9,224
2 votes
0 answers
27 views

'Anshei' vs 'B'nei'

Ezra 2 contains a big list of the size of different families. However, some of the verses (eg 16, 17, 18) introduce those they count as בני, and some of the verses (eg 22, 23, 27) introduce those they ...
Zarka's user avatar
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