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Court of Jewish Law. Nowadays, they mostly adjudicate civil disputes, and are composed of 3 judges. Their decisions are halachically binding, and in most cases, legally as well.

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How a virgin teenager boy is trusted to testify the lack of his wife's

Sanhedrin 7-9 (also Ketubot and more) discuss various claims about woman's virginity on her wedding night. If I'm getting it right, all the Rabbis agree that the [usually inexperienced and teenager] ...
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38 views

Can a Beit -Din force a Jew to save another Jew's life?

A Jew that's terminally ill R"l, and the only treatment is thru a bone marrow transplant. He has a very special type of blood (this is not a biological question). So theoretically and Halachicly (if ...
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1answer
74 views

How Sanhedrin was possible if there was no agreement about the juridical procedures?

Learning the [beginning of the] Sanhedrin tractate is difficult for me to see the never-ending disagreements between the Tannoyim and/or Ammoroyim (any combination) about the very procedure of ...
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1answer
21 views

Patur B'Dinei Adam VChayav B'Dinei Shamayim

Often times, the Gemarah will say that one is פטור בדיני אדם וחייב בדיני שמים. One such example is 91a in Bava Kamma. In such a case, although Beis Din can't administer punishment, the criminal must ...
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14 views

Does the defendant give his testimony in Nefoshos trials?

The Gemmorah dedicates pages for discussing interrogation of witnesses in Nefoshos trials (NOT MAMONOS, NOT ISHUS), but I don't recall a discussion about the testimony of the defendant. Although the ...
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1answer
85 views

A fully documented Sanhedrin trial to understand the process?

The Talmudic examples of Sanhedrin executions are numerous, but none brings a full documentary of the process, only the fact that someone was executed. That raises a lot of questions about the exact ...
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31 views

Sanhedrin - investigating the evidence, the body and the crime scene?

As I get it, in the Jewish Law, the whole trial is based exclusively on interrogating the witnesses of all the details, but not a need for shreds of evidence or investigation of the crime scene. Say ...
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36 views

Is a Bet Din allowed to refuse to consider a case?

Frequently, in U.S. courts, a judge can decide not to hear a civil case if he feels that "it's a waste of the court's time" or he doesn't feel that there's sufficient evidence on either side, or ...
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1answer
194 views

Can a beis din rule in a case where they're biased?

Can a beis din rule in monetary matters that concern them? For instance can they rule that Simon owes Levi and themselves? Or must it be brought to a unbiased beis din?
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1answer
289 views

Could video be considered as a valid halachic witness in court?

My understanding is that court cases require a minimum of two witnesses to testify against someone. Could one of these witnesses be a video, or does it need to be specifically a live human? Would ...
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66 views

Can anyone warn a man's wife to give her the status of a sotah?

In the Mishna, Sotah 4:5 (and Bavli 27a) it explains that in certain situations Beit Din may warn a woman not to be secluded with a man and this warning carries the legal status of kinuy such that if ...
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1answer
41 views

Yitroh's Advise to Moses 6 - subdividing the nation?

In the Parasha we read that Moses prophesied the 78,600 judges. According to all Meforshim each one was appointed to a specific group of people. But did he also prophesied the division of the Israeli ...
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1answer
50 views

Yitroh's Advise to Moses - What's the Chiddush?

Bney Noah are commanded on Dinim, that is establishing a legal system and courts. I would expect the Israelites in Egypt and through the Exodus to comply with this commandment and have already ...
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49 views

The process of the evaluation of the Sages' wisdom when electing for the Sanhedrin?

Mishnah Sanhedrin 4,4: "ושלש שורות של תלמידי חכמים יושבין לפניהם כל אחד ואחד מכיר את מקומו" Three rows of the Sages sit before [the Sanhedrin of 71], every one of them knows his place Rambam'...
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27 views

Questions on Yitroh's Advise to Moses on appointing judges [closed]

Without further ado: Bney Noah are commanded on establishing a legal system and courts. I would expect Bney Israel in Egypt and through the Exodus to comply with this commandment. What Chidush did ...
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1answer
44 views

Why does Yisro recommend so many judges?

In Shemos 18:21 Yisro tells Moshe that he shouldn't judge Bnei Yisrael himself, instead he should appoint: וְאַתָּ֣ה תֶחֱזֶ֣ה מִכָּל־הָ֠עָם אַנְשֵׁי־חַ֜יִל יִרְאֵ֧י אֱלֹהִ֛ים אַנְשֵׁ֥י אֱמֶ֖ת ...
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2answers
45 views

Execution by Bet Din [duplicate]

Learning gemara I did not see any death sentences that were carried out by the Bet Din. Did the Bet Din ever carry out a death penalty case?
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1answer
130 views

Don't have to articulate hataras nedarim?

I recently made a hataras nedarim in which two of the three dayanim were not articulating a single word, but simply intoning something like a low hum, during the part that is supposed to be said ...
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3answers
95 views

Can (or has) the Sanhedrin be (been) halachically established today?

Can (or has) the Sanhedrin be (been) halachically established today? If those whose answer imply that the Sanhedrin does not yet exist, then what are we to think of the so-called Sanhedrin that ...
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1answer
57 views

What is the process involved in a Beth Din recognition of Jewish status? [duplicate]

I was curious if someone could give me a breakdown regarding what the process would be for a person to receive recognition of their status through the Beth Din. I'm not speaking to conversion but of ...
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35 views

Ten commandments for judges

The Ba'al HaTurim to Devarim 1:13 notes that the word ואשמם, "And I will place [the judges as your head]," is written without the י after the ש. (This is up to debate amongst the commentaries, and not ...
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2answers
70 views

Why do we ask for judges to be restored after Moshiach comes?

In the blessing of Hashiva Shofteinu in the amida, we ask Hashem to restore the judges - referring to the times of Moshiach. Why would there be a need for judges (and Sanhedrin) in the times of ...
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1answer
148 views

Why are courts called “Elohim”?

There are numerous places in the Torah where the word "Elohim" אלהים does not mean "G-d", but rather a court. Why are courts named after one of G-d's names, and considering that G-d has many names, ...
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61 views

Sanhedrin Redefining the simple translation of a Passuk

The Sanhedrin are empowered with the capability of defining a certain word or verse in the Torah through a Drasha exegesis (cf. Hilkhot Mamrim 1:3). Firstly, does this mean that before the Sanhedrin ...
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What prompted the absent-Sanhedrin-head decree in Rosh Hashana 4:4?

R' Yochanan ben Zakai, in leading the Jewish people during and immediately after the Destruction of the Second Temple, issued many decrees aimed at responding to the new post-Temple reality and ...
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1answer
125 views

What are the requirements to be killed in Beis Din?

It is my understanding that it is incredibly difficult to be killed in Beis Din - so much so that one that kills once every seven (or seventy) years is a murderous one (Makkos 1:10). What exactly are ...
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0answers
39 views

Does the proclamation of the New Moon by Beis Din have an effect on nature?

I found in this celebratory volume, p 172 (haoros.com/download.asp?kovetzID=1086&ext=pdf) והנה הרא"ה בספר בדק הבית שלו הובא בש"ך יור"ד סי' קפ"ט סקי"ג הסכים עם קושיית הרמב"ן, ולפיכך כתב שיש ...
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1answer
89 views

Does the blessing “Poke'ach 'Ivrim” contain an allusion to the ill effects of bribery?

One of the Blessings of the Morning says that God פּוֹקֵחַ עִוְרִים opens [the eyes of] the blind (Sefaria community translation) This phrase is an almost exact reversal of the Torah's ...
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1answer
54 views

How is Peshara done?

The Gemara in the first chapter of Sanhedrin discusses the concept of Din ("justice") and Pshara ("compromise"). How Din works is simple. Look up Choshen Mishpat and apply the rules. But how is ...
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2answers
109 views

Why do Jews use lawyers in beis din?

Why do Jews who go to Beis Din to resolve a financial disagreement, often use "lawyers" (to'ein) to argue their respective sides. If the dayanim are capable shouldn't they be able to just heard the ...
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60 views

reckless endangerment

Is it possible to bring someone to beit din on the charge of reckless endangerment? If so - what is the correct terminology to describe this sort of crime? Let's define reckless endangerment ...
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3answers
171 views

Is doctrinal unity enforced in Judaism and if so, How?

In Catholicism we have the concept of the Magisterium. The Magisterium is the official teaching office of the Church and consists of all the bishops who are united to the Pope. The Magisterium is ...
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1answer
91 views

Does halacha have the concept of “standing to appeal” a court decision?

A blog post published today by Shoshanna Keats Jaskoll in the Times of Israel discusses a case in which a local rabbinical court (beit din) in Tzfat, Israel granted a divorce to a woman on behalf of ...
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2answers
172 views

Is a non-Jew executed in Beit Din hung? Is his body Promptly Removed?

Do the laws in Devarim 21:22-23 referring to the commandment to hang as well as the prohibition of leaving the body apply to a gentile who is executed by Beit Din in Eretz Yisroel? 22 And if a man ...
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1answer
76 views

Indirect murder

If you tell someone to murder someone else and they do it, are you chayav misa - even if you didn't personally perform the act? If not, what are you liable for, and on what basis?
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1answer
417 views

Can you convert without a rabbi?

Disclaimer: I am already Jewish. This question for curiousity only. Obviously it is always the best idea to convert to Judaism with a proper, official beit din. Three Jewish males over the age of bar ...
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2answers
77 views

Calendar Rules before Hillel HaSheini

In today's calendar (that is, the one established in 4119 by Hillel the Amora), months alternate between 30 days and 29 days, generally speaking. However, because of the "Arba Dechiyos" (lo adu Rosh, ...
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1answer
126 views

Giur receives Smicha Paricipation in Bet Din

I have recently been told that it is possible for a man who does GIUR to eventually receive SMICHA. My question is the following; If he can receive SMICHA , why is not possible for himever to be a ...
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2answers
47 views

What is the source of the obligation to listen to the Sanhedrin once it left Jerusalem?

The source of listening to the high court typically comes from Devarim 17:8-10: If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between ...
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1answer
50 views

Duteronomy 17 applied today

Deuteronomy 17:8 says, כִּי יִפָּלֵא מִמְּךָ דָבָר לַמִּשְׁפָּט, בֵּין-דָּם לְדָם בֵּין-דִּין לְדִין וּבֵין נֶגַע לָנֶגַע--דִּבְרֵי רִיבֹת, בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ: וְקַמְתָּ וְעָלִיתָ--אֶל-הַמָּקוֹם, ...
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2answers
60 views

Changing the requirements of a monetary case

In Sanhedrin 23: Rashi: נמצאת כת שניה קרובים או seems to imply that if the בעל דין states that he has 2 sets (4 people) of kosher עדים that he now is required to bring forth 2 sets of kosher עדים. It'...
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134 views

Would a Jew be allowed to go to a Sharia court instead of a beis din under any circumstances? [closed]

Could a Jew go to a Sharia court instead of going to a beis din to settle a dispute he has with a Muslim? If this could ever happen, under what circumstances would this be possible? Some factors that ...
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0answers
38 views

How frequently should Shatnez laboratories be checked?

Many cities have a laboratory where individuals can take their clothes to check if there is shatnez and if necessary to remove it. Often these laboratories are under the supervision of the local Beis ...
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1answer
109 views

Number of sages in the Sanhedrin of Yavneh

According to Sanhedrin 1:6, the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem had either seventy or seventy-one sages. But according to Zevachim 1:3, Yadayim 3:5 and 4:2, there were seventy-two sages in Yavneh on the day ...
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1answer
65 views

What is מדין שני בתי דינים בעיר אחת? Regarding different minhagim in New york

What did Igros Moshe 1.158 mean by the words "מדין שני בתי דינים בעיר אחת" ("from the law of two courts in one city")? What is דין שני בתי דינים בעיר אחת?
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4answers
339 views

Zaken Mamrei vs. Par He'elem Davar

This past weekend I was reading through the Torah Temimah on Vayikra and a paradox occurred to me. The Zaken Mamre is specifically applied to one who is in a position of authority over a community. ...
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1answer
126 views

erroneous decisions by beit din for which korbanot must be brought by beit din and the people

In masechet horayot we learn that korbanot must be brought if the beit din makes an erroneous decision that is followed by the people. Do we know of such a mistake that was made by a beit din? If so, ...
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50 views

Flint, Michigan: Who would be HALACHICALLY Liable?

As a hypothetical scenario, we assume that the events of the Flint water crisis are taking place in a location where Beis Din and Jewish law are ascendant. Here's a quick summary of the facts: The ...
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1answer
24 views

Give money to defendants to pay their claims? Won't that increase theft?

Avos d'R' Nasan, 33:1: … Not only that, but our father Abraham did tz'daka (≈social justice) first and thereafter mishpat (≈justice), as is said [Gen. 18:19] "for I know him, for ...
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1answer
97 views

Mi La'Hashem Eilai - Was this an appropriate response?

This question weaves together a couple different sources. The first nekudah comes from 32:32 where we have the phrase: וְאִם-אַיִן--מְחֵנִי נָא, מִסִּפְרְךָ אֲשֶׁר כָּתָבְתָּ - If you will not [...