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In OC 3, the Shulchan Aruch discusses many halachos regarding using the bathroom. Many of these seem to be disregarded with the relatively modern invent of the urinal; this is particularly concerning in public restrooms, since most of these halachos are because of tzni'us. Specifically:
ויסגור הדלת בעדו משום צניעות
He should close the door for himself because of tzni'us.
Urinals usually aren't enclosed behind doors.
לא ישתין מעומד מפני ניצוצות הניתזין על רגליו אם לא שיעמוד במקום גבוה או שישתין לתוך עפר תחוח
One should not urinate while standing because of sprinkles that fall on his legs, if he doesn't stand in a high place or urinate on loose dirt.
The problem here should be obvious.
- Is it actually forbidden to use a urinal for these reasons?
- If the answer to #1 is "yes," then why do so many shuls and other frum institutions have them?
- If the answer to #1 is "no," then why?