Would it be possible theoretically to celebrate Rosh Chodesh and Yomim Tovim on planets that have more than one moon? As the Jewish Calender is based on the moon.
Some background - why your question cannot be answered "truly" Halachicly:
There are two types of Halacha - derived from other sources and made-up from nowhere. Yes, many Halochos have no existing sources whatsoever, but because something has to be Halachic they are made-up. The probably best example is the use of electricity on Shabbos - we had no precedent or even true understanding of electricity when the Rabbis were "forced" to rule it out.
Why go so far to other planets - What about the time at the poles? How do you keep time at the poles that have no hours? As this Halacha cannot be derived from existing sources that were not aware of the existence of the poles, you just make it up, for example, you align with Jerusalem.
How about going to the orbit and having 6 sunrises in 24 hours? Same here, you make the Halachah up.
So your question is from the same area - it can not be derived from the existing sources - once it will be relevant, the Rabbis will make something up.
To your question - no, we only have one specific Moon, not just any moon that orbits the planet you're currently on. Our Moon is one that orbits the Earth and has the same relative size as the Sun and metaphorically represents the Jewish people as we say in Birkas Levonah. Outside the Earth, it makes no sense.
Moreover, the time as we know it in Judaism has no sense outside the Earth, because the only way of telling time in Judaism is by knowing the relative position of the Sun (hours) or the Moon (days). There's no idea of a minute or a second or fixed hour or else. THerefore once you're up in the skies you're on your own - the Halacha does not cover it. Come back soon!