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Inspired by this comment.

One is allowed to daven more than three times a day, at least during the week (see OC 107). Is one allowed to daven specifically five times a day, with the intention that it parallels Yom Kippur? Since this is the practice of the Muslims, does this fall under Chukas HaGoyim, or since one is davening to Hashem, would it be permitted?

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    The Halachah requires a voluntary prayer to contain something new (מחדש בה דבר). Not everyone can do this, and in fact, most of us have trouble just reciting the regular prayer text from beginning to end with proper kavanah. Due to all this, a voluntary prayer is not recommended, unless it is needed to solve a safek that arose. See the Mishnah Berurah at length on Tefilas Nedavah. – shmu Jan 27 at 19:11
  • @JoshK I did specify during the week. – DonielF Jan 27 at 19:39
  • There is about this a shut harivash – kouty Jan 27 at 20:06
  • @kouty If you could track it down that would be great – DonielF Jan 27 at 20:07
  • The Rosh would question the Mechaber ad loc. – Noach MiFrankfurt Jan 27 at 21:03
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As chova it's prohibited, as nedava, a tsibbur cannot, and a yachid nowadays is not able to make this correctly. Practically it's not permitted.

SA OC 107.1

... אבל אם ברי לו שהתפלל אינו חוזר ומתפלל בלא חידוש ועל ידי חידוש חוזר ומתפלל בנדבה כל הפעמים שירצה

I he is sure he already did pray, he cannot pray again without some novelty in the next prayer. But adding a novelty, he can pray tefilat nedava (gifts prayer) as much as he wants.

In the next seyfim, the SA explains what is novelty and, note that tsibbur cannot pray nedava.

There is not possible to pray it as a tefilat chova.

See Shut Harosh clal4, tshuva 13 The Shut is about Rabbi Matsliach who was praying mincha twice a day. The Rosh says that it's prohibited if he adds tefilot as chova, if he wants to make nedava, this is with chiddush, an for yachid only, and concluded that that's no interesting to add to the 3 tefilot, as Daniel said that there are three times only to pray in everyday day

תענית צבור שהוא דומה ליום הכפורים וראוי להתפלל בו תפלת נעילה אבל כל ימות השנה נראה דרבי יוחנן מודה שאין להתפלל יותר

This is not possible to make additional tefilot as if it's Yom Kippur or Taanit, which is partially similar to Yom Kippur, and had a neyla at the time of mishna and Gemara, because of the verse in Daniel specifying 3 times and no more.

... ...הילכך אני אומר שיש לאדם ליזהר שלא יתפלל נדבה בלא חדוש דבר וגם צריך שיהא מכיר את עצמו זריז וזהיר ואמוד בדעתו שיוכל לכוין בתפלתו מראש ועד סוף בלא היסח דעת אז קרינן ליה נדיב לב עולות (דברי הימים ב' כט לא) אבל אם אינו מכוין יפה קרי ביה למה לי רוב זבחיכם ולואי שנוכל לכוין יפה בשלשה תפלות ביום ואתה שלום וכל אשר לך שלום כנפש דורש שלומך טוב אשר בן הרב רבי יחיאל ז''ל

. He concluded that if he doesn't have a strong cavana, the pasuk says about thi למה לי רוב זבחיכם. And halevai we will be able to pray correctly 3 tefilot.

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    This doesn’t address the specific concern of davening specifically five times a day, similar to Yom Kippur and similar to the Muslims. – DonielF Jan 27 at 20:16
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Yes, one is allowed on condition that the remaining prayers would be רשות (optional) and the three obligatory.

As the Gemmorah discusses the connection of the 3 prayers to the 3 forefathers or the 3 sacrifice offerings (actually 2), it sets the number of obligatory prayers. All additional prayers must have the intention (Kavanah) of optional otherwise all the Blessings would be לבטלה.

This wouldn't be considered חוקת גויים because it does not look as Goyim - nobody knows which Teffilah a Jew is davening and his outfit says clearly he davens the Jewish prayer.

Yom Kippur has additional offerings that our additional prayers mimic, therefore one can not have an intention to simulate Yom Kippur on a regular day because of ברכה לבטלה.

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