I have found traditionally four types of authorities for the governing/ruling of the Jewish nation:
- A Prophet (like Moses or Shmuel)
- A Kohen Gadol (Pinchas)
- Sanhedrin with Nessi
- A King (Saul, David) (I would include Judges here for simplicity).
Throughout Jewish history until the destruction of the second Temple, the leadership wandered from one type to another - sometimes it was a prophet, sometimes Sanhedrin, sometimes a King etc even where the others were present.
I'm trying to imagine a theoretical, pure Halachic (Rambam based) Jewish state where all the 4 authorities are present, distinct and functioning (a prophet is not a king, or Kohen Gadol/the king is not the Nassi of the Sanhedrin).
What would be the leadership and the balance of power/authority/competence between them all, and who can override whom in what questions/realms?
For example, can a prophet or the Sanhedrin invalidate King's decree or King's execution of a מורד במלכות?