Lets supose that in talmud sage A say that something is permitted and sage B say that something is not permitted, what opinion should we follow?

Have seen some places that the difference is absurd, like:

sage A say that someone is exempt for a severe sin in THAT situation /// sage B say that someone is liable for TWO severe sin in THAT situation.

Well, in position of sage A, there isn't a sin, in position of sage B it is double severe sin.

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    You follow whatever your local Orthodox Rabbi rules, who will likely base his position based on how later authorities interpret those passages. – Salmononius2 Nov 28 '18 at 17:27
  • Why not, why is it absurd? – kouty Nov 28 '18 at 17:27
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    You're asking a general question on a specific case. There are rules as to whom we follow in any given scenario. Please provide a specific case where you have found this. – user18323 Nov 28 '18 at 17:46
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    Move to close as Too Broad. If you want to be trained as a rabbi, there are schools that offer multi year programs teaching this. – Double AA Nov 28 '18 at 17:54

In the back of most stand printings of tractate Brachot there is a section entitled קיצור כללי התלמוד, Concise Talmudic Principles.

While not quoting all the rules in full here, here is a sampling of some rules concerning rulings.

  • Rav Chisda and Rav Huna, the law is like Rav Huna.
  • Rav Sheshes and Rav Nachman, the law is like Rav Sheshes in prohibited items, and like Rav Nachman in judicial cases.
  • Rav Yehuda and Raba, the law is like Rav Yehuda.
  • Rabah and Rav Yosef the law is like Rabah besides for three cases.
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  • This is only relevant to these Amoraim, what about Tannaim? And machlokesim with the Rishonim. – user18323 Nov 28 '18 at 19:44
  • I’m pretty sure the Tanaanim are also mentioned there. As I wrote this is only a digest. And the op only address Talmud content @DannyF – Dr. Shmuel Nov 28 '18 at 19:50
  • well, but this do not include many other sages, examples: Rabi Ashi and Rabi Yishmael (which ones im studing, but want to expand the concept to everyone) – eeerrrttt Nov 29 '18 at 6:05
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    @eeerrrttt If you are studying a specific case, you should edit the question with the case and the rabbis involved if you want to know specifically about them – b a Nov 29 '18 at 10:23
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    I dont think this answer the question, which is general. – Al Berko Nov 29 '18 at 14:57

There's an important distinction everyone should know about the Jewish Halachah in general:

the Halachah is not what's ruled by Rabbis, but what's accepted by others. (Rabbi Zvi Pesach Derner, Ale Higayon 2)

In other words, both opinions are held true until other Rabbis and the general public (tens and hundred years later) tend to accept one of them. That opinion becomes the ruling Halachah.

For example, the Tannoyim argue, but the Yamaha is what the Amoroyim accept. Same with the Gain in Rambam, Tur was not accepted widely but Shu"A was etc.

It's crucial to understand that the fact that the latter generation chose either opinion does not falsify the other in any way. Other Rabbis in other times and places might think differently and turn it to their Halachah.

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    The Shulchan Aruch is ostensibly the Tur! The starting point of the Shulchan Aruch is the Tur. You could hardly say the Tur was not accepted by the Sh. A was. Nonetheless, It is only the additions of the Rema that made the Shulchan Aruch accepted as the standard benchmark in terms of final psak in their day. It is crucial to understand that once the Halacha has been decided upon, the other alternatives are not alternatives, under those conditions. – user18323 Nov 29 '18 at 11:24
  • @DannyF I didn't say Tur wasn't accepted BY Mechaber, I said Tur wasn't accepted BUT Mechaber was. – Al Berko Nov 29 '18 at 14:31
  • @DannyF That's the arbitrarity of the Halachah I'm talking about, just like in other areas (Leavdil) science or art - some get famous and renown in their lifetimes, some after they die, some many years later and some not at all. – Al Berko Nov 29 '18 at 14:37
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    I mistyped the Tur was not accepted, but the SA was....That statement is simply wrong. – user18323 Nov 29 '18 at 14:53
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    Halacha is not arbitrary you are very mistaken with this. There are rules and guidelines, and subtleties which you fail to grasp. – user18323 Nov 29 '18 at 14:54

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