Yoma 44b-45a says there are seven types of gold: gold, good gold, Ophir gold, Mufaz gold, Shachut gold, Sagur good, and Paryavam gold, and proceeds to explain what they are.

Let’s say that Reuven sells Shimon a gold alloy and claims that it’s gold. Shimon gets it checked by a metallurgist and comes back to Reuven, saying that he thought it was pure gold. Is this considered a mistaken sale, for which Reuven must return the proceeds of the sale?

On the one hand, Reuven said “gold,” and in common parlance, that means pure gold (with some degree of error on its purity), and that’s not what he sold.

On the other hand, the Gemara says that there are different types of gold, many of which seem to be alloys (ex. Mufaz gold, according to Rashi, sounds like white gold; Paryavam gold, defined as red gold, is a gold-copper alloy; etc.). Does this definition of gold (i.e. any of these seven gold-based metals) extend to common sales, and if Shimon meant that he wanted pure gold, he must explicitly say so?

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    Your general question is interesting but the particular example is, I think, mistaken. Nowadays no one buying "gold" (in the States, at least) expects pure gold. On the contrary, they know it's impure and inquire as to how impure. – msh210 Nov 13 at 1:55
  • @msh210 “and in common parlance, that means pure gold (which some degree of error on its purity)” – DonielF Nov 13 at 14:23
  • Thanks @Danny. I can’t believe I didn’t catch that autocorrect. – DonielF Nov 13 at 14:48
  • Is your question about מקח טעות? The passage in Yoma does not discuss the monetary implication of all those types of gold. Why do you ask on Yoma and not on חושן משפט? – Al Berko Nov 28 at 18:55
  • @AlBerko Yes, my question is about מקח טעות. My question is precisely about the monetary implications of the Gemara in Yoma. Why should the Gemara's not asking about monetary implications prevent me from asking about it? – DonielF Nov 28 at 20:43

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