When did this minhag begin? Where? and with who, and why is it almost all of Klal Yisroel who do it today? Is there any other "kabbalistic" minhag like this (well L'cha Dodi comes to mind).
According to this article found on the RCE's website, written by a certain רב ישראל פינחס טירנואר, the minhag of Hakafot began with the Arizal. The author supplies a supporting quote on page 6 of the article from R. Chaim Vital's Shaar HaKavanot, in the introduction to Drushei Chag Sukkot, where R. Vital describes how the Arizal would perform Hakafot.