Some commentators see the referent in Psalm 110 to be Abraham, others David. Rashi gives both interpretations. Are there commentators or other sources (Targumim, Talmud, Midrash, and so on) which see the referent as being the Mashiach?

  • Are you perhaps confusing this with the Xtian interpretation? outreachjudaism.org/psalm110 Oct 3, 2018 at 13:22
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    @IsraelReader - Dr. Uri Yosef in an online essay on Psalm 110 at the Jewish Home.com admits that seeing the referent as the Mashiach is plausible though he himself does not have that view. He writes: '... since King David is also counted among the 55 Jewish prophets named in the Hebrew Bible, and there is use made in this psalm of verbs conjugated in the future tense, it becomes plausible that there is an allusion here to יח ַשׁ ִמ .' Oct 3, 2018 at 14:54
  • Can you please post a link to the essay? Oct 3, 2018 at 15:01
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    @IsraelReader: Go to thejewishhome.org/counter/Psa110.pdf Oct 3, 2018 at 15:11
  • The Christian interpretation that Psalm 110 refers to the Messiah is not necessarily wrong, the psalm just fails to prove Jesus was the Messiah. Shrugs
    – ezra
    Oct 4, 2018 at 3:28

2 Answers 2


Actually, the Chomath Anach - חומת אנך quoting the Sefer Eretz Chaim on this verse לְדָוִ֗ד מִ֫זְמ֥וֹר נְאֻ֤ם ה' ׀ לַֽאדֹנִ֗י שֵׁ֥ב לִֽימִינִ֑י עַד־אָשִׁ֥ית אֹ֝יְבֶ֗יךָ הֲדֹ֣ם לְרַגְלֶֽיךָ explains that the qualifying monarchs in each generation - up to and including Mashiach - will be granted the privilege of שֵׁב לִימִינִי.

The חומת אנך himself adds that this is possibly hinted to by the fact that the last letters of עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ i.e. ד-ת-ך have the same numerical value (424) as משיח בן דוד

ובספר ארץ החיים כתב לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי שנאמר "חסד לאברהם". ואימתי? עַד־אָשִׁית שהוא בימי יעקב-מטתו-שלימה שנאמר "תתן אמת ליעקב חסד לאברהם". מַטֵּה־עֻזְּךָ מטה יעקב היה ביד יהודה משה אהרן דוד וכל מלך ובחרבן נגנז ועתיד להתגלות למשיח עכ"ד. ‏
ואפשר עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ ס"ת גימטריא משיח בן דוד כי אז אברהם יגל יצחק ירנן יעקב ובניו ינוחו:‏

  • @@Shoemann - Does this source show that the referent of Psalm 110 was exclusively Mashiach? And does it interpret the whole psalm in that way and not just the first verse? Oct 3, 2018 at 15:23
  • @CliffordDurousseau - no, not exclusively Mashiach, but (as I wrote): the qualifying monarchs in each generation - up to and including Mashiach. And that applies to all 7 verses of the Psalm. Oct 3, 2018 at 15:31

'Sforno says that this Psalm is dedicated to the future king Messiah. He is on God’s right hand and the ministering angels are on the left. The armies of Gog and Magog will attack, but HaShem will subdue them until they come crawling to the feet of the Messiah.' (Artscroll Tenach Commentary)

See further Avot d'Rav Natan 34:4.

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