The Book of Judith was originally written as a fiction and was (incorrectly) accepted as valid by the Christians. Even the nonJewish scholars regard this as a work of fiction. It does seem that it is possible that it is conflated with Chanuka. However, since the reference is to a single day, But the day of the festivity of this victory, it does not seem likely.
The Jewish Encyclopedia dates its composition as around the first century before the Common Era. This means that it could never have happened.
One would probably not be far out of the way in placing it near the
beginning of the first century B.C. The book is first quoted by
Clement of Rome (Ep. I. ad Corinth., c. 55), near the end of the first
century of the common era.
Historicity of Judith
It is generally accepted that the Book of Judith is ahistorical. The
fictional nature "is evident from its blending of history and fiction,
beginning in the very first verse, and is too prevalent thereafter to
be considered as the result of mere historical mistakes."
Thus, the great villain is "Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled over the
Assyrians" (1:1), yet the historical Nebuchadnezzar II was the king of
Babylonia. Other details, such as fictional place names, the
immense size of armies and fortifications, and the dating of events,
cannot be reconciled with the historical record. Judith's village,
Bethulia (literally "virginity") is unknown and otherwise unattested
to in any ancient writing.
Nevertheless, there have been various attempts by both scholars and
clergy to understand the characters and events in the Book as
allegorical representations of actual personages and historical
events. Much of this work has focused on linking Nebuchadnezzar with
various conquerors of Judea from different time periods and, more
recently, linking Judith herself with historical female leaders,
including Queen Salome Alexandra, Judea's only female monarch (76-67
BCE) and its last ruler to die while Judea remained an independent
The Jewish Encyclopedia also explains that it is a complete work of fiction. As a result, there would be no such holiday. In fact, the Encyclopedia points out that from the first sentence, it is deliberately written so that the reader would know that it is fiction.
The book begins with a date, "the twelfth year of the reign of
Nebuchadnezzar," and everything moves with the air of a precise
account of actual events. But the way in which the narrative at once
makes open sport of chronology and history is very striking.
Nebuchadnezzar is the king of Assyria, and reigns in Nineveh(!). The
Jews, who have "newly returned from the captivity" (iv. 3, v. 19), are
in no sense his subjects; indeed, his chief captain has apparently
never heard of them (v. 3). Yet the writer of this story was a
well-informed man, familiar with foreign geography (i. 6-10, ii.
21-28), and well acquainted with the Hebrew Scriptures (i. 1; ii. 23;
v. 6-19; viii. 1, 26; ix. 2 et seq.). It must therefore be concluded
either that the principal names of the story are a mere disguise, or
that they were chosen with a purely literary purpose, and with the
intent to disclaim at the outset any historical verity for the tale.
The former supposition is not rendered plausible by any consideration,
and fails utterly to account for the peculiarities of the narrative;
the latter, on the contrary, gives a satisfactory explanation of all
the facts. That is, with the very first words of the tale, "In the
twelfth year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, who reigned over the
Assyrians in Nineveh," the narrator gives his hearers a solemn wink.
They are to understand that this is fiction, not history. It did not
take place in this or that definite period of Jewish history, but
simply "once upon a time," the real vagueness of the date being
transparently disguised in the manner which has become familiar in the
folk-tales of other parts of the world.