Jesus's actions as reported by his followers indicate that he said some kind of brachot on bread and wine. This indicated familiarity with some aspects of the Oral Law. At one point he is even recorded as stating that the laws established by the Rabbis must be obeyed, although he later often contradicts these laws and argues about them (which of course indicates he was familiar with them). Therefore, it seems possible that he was a talmid of one of the Rabbis before turning to unorthodox beliefs. But there is no evidence that he received smicha and he certainly was never a dayan.
As to being called 'Rabbi' he is referred to in this way by his followers, who of course had accepted him as their teacher, which is what "Rabbi"'s meaning is. In those days Rabbi was not a formal title (note that none of the Zugot and few of the early Tannaim are called by any title, even in the Gemara).