To continue my scientific/Halachic exploration, I would like to summarize the approaches in one question that addresses the famous Rashi on Dvorim 17,11. I think this long and well-sourced question is crucial in setting the common ground for all "reality/science vs Judaism" related questions.
עַל־פִּי הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר יוֹרוּךָ וְעַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֲשֶׁר־יֹאמְרוּ לְךָ תַּעֲשֶׂה לֹא תָסוּר מִן־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־יַגִּידוּ לְךָ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל׃
You shall act in accordance with the instructions given you and the ruling handed down to you; you must not deviate from the verdict that they announce to you either to the right or to the left.
Rashi on the verse, actually, "distorts" the original Sifre mixing it a bit with Yerushalmi, please compare:
Rashi uses "objective" terms of right and left:
" אֲפִלּוּ אוֹמֵר לְךָ עַל יָמִין שֶׁהוּא שְׂמֹאל וְעַל שְׂמֹאל שֶׁהוּא יָמִין, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאוֹמֵר לְךָ עַל יָמִין יָמִין וְעַל שְׂמֹאל שְׂמֹאל (ספרי):
Even if the judge tells you about right that it is left, or about left that it is right, you have to obey him; how much the more is this so if actually, he tells you about right that it is right and about left it is left.
Sifre Dvorim 154:5 clearly uses a different, "subjective" language:
"ימין ושמאל. אפילו נראים בעיניך על שמאל שהוא ימין, ועל ימין שהוא שמאל - שמע להם.
"right or left": Even if it seems in your eyes that they are telling you left is right and right is left, listen to them.
And the Yerushalmi Horayot 2b presents a completely different picture:
":ואם בטועה לומר התורה אמרה אחריהם אחריהם אין זה שמעון בן עזאי כהדא דתני יכול אם יאמרו לך על ימין שהיא שמאל ועל שמאל שהיא ימין תשמע להם? ת"ל ללכת ימין ושמאל שיאמרו לך על ימין שהוא ימין ועל שמאל שהוא שמאל
(my translation) ... Can you think that if they say on right it's left and vice verse you will listen to them? [of course not!] For [the verse says] "to stray right and left" is only when they say on right that it's right and on left that's left.
So the Rashi's interpretation here is off the traditional approach of either Sifre that allows for listening to the Rabbis when the judgment is subjective (like your right is my left) or the Yerushalmi that does not accept listening to Rabbis that contradict the evident - call the right left and vice verse.
Interestingly, this Rashi became widely accepted and extrapolated to all Rabbinical sayings in the Talmud, the Midrash and more, causing accusation of those who follow the opposing [and not a less traditional] view in heresy and apostasy.
The question: Are there sources that accept the Sifre and the Yerushalmi's approach to [not/] accepting Rabbinical sayings over Rashi's? Like Ramba"N, Avraham Ben Haramba"M and more?
A "Meta"-question - shouldn't the contemporary Rabbis revert the official Judaic position of the blind אמונת חכמים to the Sifre and Yerushalmi views without sacrificing anything??