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On Friday night, a mourner, during the first 7 days, a mourner enters shul right before the recitation of Psalm 92 (Mizmor shir l'yom hashabbat).

A mourner enters the synagogue on Friday evening before Mizmor shir l'yom haShabbat (after the main part of Kabbalat Shabbat has finished).

REASON Mizmor shir is the actual starting point of Shabbat. The congregation stands and, as the mourners walk in, greets the mourners with “HaMakom yenacheim etchem b'toch she'ar aveilei tzion v'yrushalayim.

Here is what I have found online about the practice.

When the mourner davens IN shul because there isn't enough of a community to support separate minyanim, and is necessarily part of the mincha minyan count, must he leave for the Kabbalat Shabbat and then re-enter?

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I've been to a variety of shuls - mainly Nusach Ashkenaz and mainly Orthodox. In all of these, I have seen the mourner outside the shul for Kabbalat Shabbat. This occurred in all cases when the mourner is there for Mincha and is necessary for the minyan, or even if he is not needed. (In most cases, the mourner is Shat'z, though in a few shuls, the mourner is not competent to be Shat"z.

See this article that discusses if Kabbalat Shabbat is considered tefillah betzibbur. It seems to lean to the idea that it is not. If that's the case, it may present the question as to whether a mourner should be out of his home when it is not yet Shabbat other than for the purpose of saying Kaddish which requires a minyan. (There is general consensus that reciting Kabbalat Shabbat is not an acceptance of Shabbat, though, see this article that discusses some interesting issues of a minyan that accepts Shabbat "early".)

Thus, while the mourner was present for Mincha to say Kaddish, he is asked to leave for Kabbalat Shabbat because it is still a "weekday". Shabbat acceptance begins at the point of saying Psalm 92 (according to many opinions. See 2nd link that discusses alternate opinions.) That's why the congregational "greeting" is said then, and for the mourner it is Shabbat, when he may enter the shul.

It is common to say a Psalm prior to reciting the mourner's Kaddish. That partially explains why Psalm 92 is said, then.

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