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If somebody borrowed my Teffilin, and then accidentally fell asleep while wearing them, and during his sleep experienced a nocturnal emission, have my Teffilin become spiritually damaged at all?!

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    Welcome to Mi Yodeya, and thank you for your thoughtful question! – רבות מחשבות Jun 29 '18 at 19:07
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    Whoever voted to close, I don't see why this is considered Pesak Halacha, but ok... – רבות מחשבות Jun 29 '18 at 19:07
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Not a problem in the slightest. Pleae ignore it and continue to serve God by wearing your Tefilin. If this hangup is preventing you from doing mitzvos in a positive manner, please consult a competent rabbi and/or mental health professional.

Rambam, laws of Tefilin, Mezuzah, and Sefer Torah 4:13

וכל הטמאין, כולן חייבין בתפילין כטהורין

The incontinent are exempted from wearing Tefilin, but those who are ritually impure are all exactly as obligated to wear Tefilin as those who are ritually pure.

Similarly in 10:8.

כל הטמאים, אפילו נידות, ואפילו גויים--מותרין לאחוז ספר תורה, ולקרות בו: שאין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה. והוא שלא יהיו ידיהם מטונפות, או מלוכלכות בטיט; אלא ירחצו ידיהם, ואחר כך ייגעו בו.

Anyone ritually impure -- even a menstruant woman or a non-Jew -- is allowed to hold a Torah scroll and read it, as the words of Torah cannot become impure. This assumes their hands are not dirty or covered with mud -- if so, they should wash their hands, and then may touch it.

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    Tefillin actually can become impure, unlike a Torah scroll. See Keilim 18:8. See too Sukkah 26b regarding the laws of OP's case. – Double AA Jun 29 '18 at 19:21
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    Thank you! Sukkah 26b actually reinforces the message here -- go ahead and wear the Tefilin the next day, no matter what happened. – Shalom Jun 29 '18 at 20:09
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    @Abner I would like to relate a story which is reatled to the idea which Shalom brought out in his answer. There was a student in the Poneviz Yeshiva who came to the great Masgiach Rav Yechezkel Levenstein ZTL and said I have just been to Tel-Aviv, and I have unfortunately fallen into comitting a very great sin of immorality, What should I do now? The Mashgiach answered him "Go up to the bais midrah and delve yourself into torah study for a few hours, Before the Yetzer Hara gets a chance to convince you that because of your heinous actions you are no longer worthy of studying the holy Torah!" – RibbisRabbiAndMore Jul 1 '18 at 7:53

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