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In many countries, flour and processed grain products are required to be iron and/or niacin enriched, and many times the niacin used is derived from pork. This renders the grain product non-kosher. But why is the pork-derived additive not bittul when it is almost certainly less than 1/60 of the final product?

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I think you are referring to the question whether bittul b'shishim is valid when done on purpose (lechathila). Here is what the Star-K writes on this

One may not mix even a small amount of non-kosher food into kosher food. This is known as “ain mevatlin issur l’chatchila.” Similarly, one may not put a small amount of milk into a very large pot of meat, even though the milk will be batel b’shishim. If one did this intentionally, he, his family, and the person for whom he is mevatel it may not eat it. However, if a gentile company adds a non-kosher ingredient and the non-kosher ingredient is batel, a kosher consumer may buy this product as there is no prohibition of “ain mevatlin” for the gentile. This is only true if it was not done explicitly for Yidden.

As you see the specific circumstances matter a lot which is why it is hard to rule in general.

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    So, @mbloch, b'deveid it may be kosher dependant on the circumstances but l'chatchila it would not be. Makes sense. And "I didn't feel like shelling out an extra US$2 for spaghetti so I bought a brand with pork-derived niacin enrichment" would not qualify as b'deveid since I knew what I was doing. Jun 19, 2018 at 20:24
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    Or, as they write, it might be kosher even l'chathila if, say, a gentile niacin producer would prepare pork-based niacin (<1/60), then sell it to both gentile and Jewish companies.
    – mbloch
    Jun 19, 2018 at 20:26
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    This case may well fall under "However, if a gentile company adds a non-kosher ingredient and the non-kosher ingredient is batel, a kosher consumer may buy this product as there is no prohibition of “ain mevatlin” for the gentile.25 This is only true if it was not done explicitly for Yidden" on the Star-K page linked above, perhaps my understanding of the halacha on this issue is off! Jun 19, 2018 at 22:14

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