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I've seen someone quote a certain Jewish text here and there in my readings on the internet where it says something along the likes of, 'eight for the Torah, thirteen for the study, nineteen for marriage, twenty-four for fatherhood, and forty for grandchildren.' I knew who wrote this a couple months ago, but now as I'm trying to dig it up again I'm not having any luck.

Could someone help me out here with a hint or something?

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    "twenty-four for fatherhood, and forty for grandchildren" - that's self-contradictory – Heshy Jun 8 '18 at 17:17
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    Based on your 5 year gap between marriage and fatherhood, it sounds likely your text is from a recent source unusually approving of prolonged use of birth control... – Loewian Jun 8 '18 at 19:42
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Most likely, you're thinking of Yehuda ben Teima in Avot 5:21, which is of the form you describe, though with a different particular list:

הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, בֶּן חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים לַמִּקְרָא, בֶּן עֶשֶׂר לַמִּשְׁנָה, בֶּן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה לַמִּצְוֹת, בֶּן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה לַתַּלְמוּד, בֶּן שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה לַחֻפָּה, בֶּן עֶשְׂרִים לִרְדֹּף, בֶּן שְׁלשִׁים לַכֹּחַ, בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים לַבִּינָה, בֶּן חֲמִשִּׁים לָעֵצָה, בֶּן שִׁשִּׁים לַזִּקְנָה, בֶּן שִׁבְעִים לַשֵּׂיבָה, בֶּן שְׁמֹנִים לַגְּבוּרָה, בֶּן תִּשְׁעִים לָשׁוּחַ, בֶּן מֵאָה כְּאִלּוּ מֵת וְעָבַר וּבָטֵל מִן הָעוֹלָם:‏

He [Yehudah ben Teima] used to say: Five years [is the age] for [the study of] Scripture, Ten [is the age] for [the study of] Mishnah, Thirteen [is the age] for [observing] commandments, Fifteen [is the age] for [the study of] Talmud, Eighteen [is the age] for the [wedding] canopy, Twenty [is the age] for pursuit, Thirty [is the age] for [full] strength, Forty [is the age] for understanding, Fifty [is the age] for [giving] counsel, Sixty [is the age] for mature age, Seventy [is the age] for a hoary head, Eighty [is the age] for [superadded] strength, Ninety [is the age] for [a] bending [stature], One hundred, is [the age at which one is] as if dead, passed away, and ceased from the world.

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