What is the full list of rules for when to pronounce a sh'va (i.e. na) during tefillah and keriat hatorah?

When I was in school, I remember being taught that a sh'va was na in the following 5 cases (the rules from Masoret hamasoret written by Eliyahu Levita and published in 1538):*

  1. Under the first letter of a word (לְךָ)
  2. The second of two consecutive sh'vas (נַפְשְׁךָ)
  3. Under a letter immediately following a long vowel (הַמֹּשְׁלִים)
  4. Under a letter with a dagesh (דַּבְּרוּ)
  5. Under the first of two identical consecutive letters (הַלְלוּ)

(And see e.g. here where it is assumed that these are the rules.)

Does anyone argue on these rules? Are there any exceptions? For number three, is there a consensus on what consitutes a long vowel?

Are there any further instances where a sh'va is na?

As a starting point I have heard the word רִצְפַת (Esther 1:6) read with a sh'va na on the tzadi, as well as the word הַמְבֹרָךְ (as part of tefillah) with a sh'va na on the mem. What rule(s) are these following?

* Thanks to b a for looking it up in the original book!

  • 1
    3 and 5 are the debatable ones. And you have to include rule 6: there are exceptions to everything. – Double AA May 28 '18 at 14:17
  • Wikipedia attributes the rules to Rabbi Eliyahu Bachur and says the fifth one has a lot of exceptions, without elaboration – b a May 28 '18 at 14:29
  • There are these present tense "verb" forms with מ you mention, which avoid dagesh despite the -ה prefix, but I don't know the general rule. – Kazi bácsi May 28 '18 at 14:31
  • @Kazibácsi The rule is if it the מסורה marks a מתג on the ה then the שוא on the מ is נע (with a few listed exceptions). But for anything post-biblical all bets are off. – Double AA May 28 '18 at 14:33
  • @DoubleAA That's clear, but we need to reconstruct somehow the rules for the prayers. This -הַמ form can be found in Bereishit 45:12 (but I have seen it many times mistakenly with a dagesh). – Kazi bácsi May 28 '18 at 14:57

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