What is the exact meaning of this Gemara [Shabbat 89a]:
דרב חסדא ורבה ברי' דרב הונא דאמרי תרווייהו מאי הר סיני הר שירדה שנאה לעכו"ם עליו
It is usually translated as:
Rav Ḥisda and Rabba, son of Rav Huna, both said: What [is the reason it is called] Mount Sinai? It is because it is a mountain upon which hatred [sina] for the idolaters descended.
Now, some commentators say it talks about the hatred that God and the Jews have towards the idolaters. But other commentators say it talks about the hatred that the idolaters have towards the Jews. (In other words, that antisemitism began with the giving of the Torah, because it preached things the gentiles did not want to hear.)
The second is compelling. But the first is bolstered by what the Gemara says later:
[It was called] the Sinai desert, because hatred descended on it. What was its [real] name? Its name was Horeb… because desolation [hurbah] to idolaters descended on it. [Shabbat 89b]
So which is it? Both, perhaps?