Gemara Yoma 38b גמרא יומא לח עמוד ב

אין אדם נוגע במוכן לחבירו... אפי' כמלא נימא

Everyone has a portion designated for him by God, and the individual is privileged to receive what is coming to him,. The principle is: No person can touch that which is prepared for another by God;

Why then is there an איסור of השגת גבול / יורד לאומנות חבירו when doing something which (seems to) infringe on someone else's parnasah?


  • how about לא תגזול?
    – Loewian
    May 17 '18 at 14:40
  • @Loewian - לא תגזול has nothing to do with whether you made the person lose out or not. (eg. שואל שלא מדעת גזלן even if no loss). If you took / used someone else's thing without permission its גזל no matter what. But יורד לאומנות חבירו by definition means you affected his income,. If one cannot due that then how can anyone have that עבירה. May 17 '18 at 18:47
  • should be זה נהנה וזה לה חסר if he was fated to lose it anyway (and accordingly, you should maybe be able to assume he's mochel)
    – Loewian
    May 18 '18 at 4:27

This is ultimately the same question as 'what's wrong with killing someone if the years are determined at Yom Kippur?'

A similar question is asked by the Ramban regarding why Mitzrayim where punished for enslaving the Jews. One of the answers (I cannot remember for certain if it is the Ramban's own or someone elses) is 'true it was going to happen, but it is not for you to do so.'

So too - it could be that in the heavenly calculations all is unchanged, but you will still have done an evil act.

  • This is not necessarily comparable to the case of killing someone. Although it is stated that a person's years are fixed, it is possible that someone else's actions could interfere with that. (See Ohr HaChaim to Parshat VaYeishev). Here the gemara explicitly states that one person is unable to affect another's livelihood.
    – Joel K
    May 17 '18 at 11:49
  • @JoelK true, if you hold that (I do not believe everyone does) the comparison is not 100%. However my actual answer is not dependent on that.
    – user15253
    May 17 '18 at 11:55
  • as an aside, I'm not convinced that the gemara is speaking about parnassa at all.
    – user15253
    May 17 '18 at 11:58
  • see rambam in shmone prakim
    – kouty
    Dec 4 '18 at 13:35

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