I would like to find the Mishna juridicial decision of the 10 Commandments (Exodus 20:2-13, Deuteronomy 5:6-17) which states the punishments for breaking said commandments in summary form.
The Mishna arranges laws topically, and so the ten commandments aren't discussed together.
I am the Lord your God: No punishment is discussed regarding this verse to my knowledge
Idol worship: Stoning (Sanhedrin 7:4)
Swearing in vain: Lashes (Shevuot 3:8)
Desecration of Sabbath: Stoning (Sanhedrin 7:4).
Honoring parents: No punishment is discussed to my knowledge
Murder: Decapitation (Sanhedrin 9:1)
Adultery: Choking (Sanhedrin 11:1, numbered chapter 10 in Gemara)
Kidnapping: Choking (Sanhedrin 11:1, numbered chapter 10 in Gemara)
Bearing false witness: Lashes (Makkot 1:3)
Coveting: No punishment is discussed to my knowledge
However, a short list can't give a full picture. Some punishments are disputed or only apply in specific circumstances. The eighth commandment, for instance, is interpreted in multiple ways so as to include either/both theft and kidnapping, and the punishment, of course, depends on the interpretation. The punishment for striking a parent (Exodus 21:15) is given as choking (Sanhedrin 11:1), and yet it isn't specifically connected to the honoring of parents in the ten commandments. In addition, many of these are listed more than once in the Mishna, so that idolatry, desecrating the Sabbath and adultery are also listed (Keretot 1:1) with those punished with karet, even though they are already mentioned in the list above.