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The Midrash (Tanchuma Tzav #14, Vayikra Rabbah 7:3) advises one to start teaching their children with parshas Vayikra, since the korbonos are pure, just like children are pure. This is brought by the Kol Bo #74 as the minhag, subsequently brought by the Shach to Yoreh Deah 245 s.k. 8, and Be'er Heitev ad. loc.

Aruch HaShulchan ad. loc. seif 11 brings it as well, and writes:

כדי שיבואו טהורים ויתעסקו בטהרות, ועוד טעמים יש בזה.‏

so that pure ones will go delve with purities. And there are additional reasons for this.

What other reasons for this minhag is he alluding to? The above Tanchuma adds one more, that it's to teach us that reading about korbonos is as if we brought them. Are there any others?

  • One of the first comments in Tosefes B'racha (by the son of the author of Aruch Hashulchan) on Vayikra cites both of those reasons, expanding on the Midrash Tanchuma one because he thought the Sha"ch and Kolbo didn't give it its due. He also cites Zohar Vay'chi pp. 134b, 139a. Maybe there is more there. – WAF Mar 19 '18 at 6:01
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There are indeed many more. This blog post does a nice job of summarizing some of them, and the sources brought below can be found there.

Sefer Chasidim - Just as the world is "held up" in the merit of the Korbanos, it is also "held up" by the Torah of young Children.

Keli Yakar suggests that the small Aleph in the word Vayikra hints to us to do this.

Others seem to understand that all learning should really start from Vayikra, and that is the reason why we make sure that children do, but really adults should as well.

Additional reasons are brought in this article. A very interesting suggestion is put forward at the end of this Devar Torah. Also, see here for a long discussion of where children should start to learn from.

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