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I am trying to understand what it means to "keep shabbat" completely. It appears that there are two general components, Shamor (refraining from the forbidden behaviors -- negative) and Zachor (engaging in proper behaviors, positive). Does the abiding by either of these general categories require intent/kavannah in order for it to be considered as having been "observed"?

I have read that in order to be guilty of trespass when performing a melacha, there is some need for intention on some level. But if I am not faced with a situation in which I can winnow, then is my "not winnowing" (simply by circumstance and outside my awareness) an observance, or must I have in mind that I am refraining from each melacha? Or when an opportunity to winnow comes about, must my reasoning for not winnowing be related to its being Shabbat?

On the Zachor side, must I "enjoy" with an eye towards Shabbat? Aside from the Kiddush, candles, havdalah, there seems to be an obligation to have "oneg" and "kibud" but do those require intent? If I sit and eat tasty foods and put on special clothes, but only because I want to, not considering that it is Shabbat, have I fulfilled that aspect of Zachor? Have I been mechalel Shabbat, or not observed it in the "proper" way if I don't have Shabbat in mind when relaxing?

Ultimately, If I sleep through the entire 25 hour period, have I observed Shabbat in any proper sense (having done no melachot but without awareness of Shamor, and not having actively done "Zachor")?

  • How is this different from any other Mitzva, where we can debate in general if Mitzvot Tzerikhot Kavana or not? – Double AA Feb 11 '18 at 16:01

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