The conversation between God and Satan is discussed by the Talmud at length in Bava Basra 15b-16a.
Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves
before the Lord, and Satan came also among them. And the Lord said
unto Satan, whence comest thou? And Satan answered etc. He addressed
the Holy One, blessed be He thus: Sovereign of the Universe, I have
traversed the whole world and found none so faithful as thy servant
Abraham. For Thou didst say to him, Arise, walk through the land to
the length and the breadth of it, for to thee I will give it, and even
so, when he was unable to find any place in which to bury Sarah until
he bought one for four hundred shekels of silver, he did not complain
against thy ways. Then the Lord said to Satan, Hast thou considered my
servant Job? for’ there is none like him in the earth etc.
Said R. Johanan: Greater praise is accorded to Job than to Abraham.
For of Abraham it is written, For now I know that thou fearest God,
whereas of Job it is written, That man was perfect and upright and one
that feared God and eschewed evil. What is the meaning of ‘eschewed
evil’? — R. Abba b. Samuel said: Job was liberal with his money.
Ordinarily, if a man owes half a prutah [to a workman], he spends it
in a shop, but Job used to make a present of it [to the workman].
And then Satan answered the Lord and said, Doth Job fear God for
nought? Hast thou not made at hedge about him and about his house etc.
What is the meaning of the words, Thou hast blessed the work of his
hands? — R. Samuel b. R. Isaac said: Whoever took a prutah from Job
had luck with it. What is implied by the words, His cattle is
increased in the land, — R. Jose b. Hanina said: The cattle of Job
broke through the general rule. Normally wolves kill goats, but in the
cattle of Job the goats killed the wolves. But put forth thine hand
now and touch all that he hath, and he will renounce thee to thy
face... And the Lord said unto Satan, Behold all that he hath is in
thy power, only upon himself put not forth thine hand etc. . . . And
it fell on a day when his sons and daughters were eating and drinking
wine in their eldest brother's house that there came a messenger unto
Job and said, The oxen were plowing etc. What is meant by the words,
The oxen were plowing and the asses feeding beside them? — R. Johanan
said: This indicates that the Holy One, blessed be He, gave to Job a
taste of the future world. While he was yet speaking there came also
another and said, The fire of God. . . While he was yet speaking there
came also another and said, The Chaldeans made three bands . . . and
fell upon the camels and have taken them away . . . While he was yet
speaking there came also another and said, Thy sons and thy daughters
were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house, and
behold there came a great wind from the wilderness and smote the four
corners of the house and it fell upon the young men . . . Then Job
arose and rent his mantle and shaved his head. . . and he said, Naked
came I out of my mother's womb and naked shall I return thither; the
Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be the name of the
Lord. In all this Job sinned not nor charged God with foolishness.
Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves
. . . and the Lord said unto Satan, From whence comest thou? And Satan
answered the Lord and said, From going to and fro in the earth etc. He
said: Sovereign of the Universe, I have traversed the whole earth, and
have not found one like thy servant Abraham. For thou didst say to
him, Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and the breadth
of it, for to thee I will give it, and when he wanted to bury Sarah he
could not find a place in which to bury her, and yet he did not
complain against thy ways. Then the Lord said unto Satan, Hast thou
considered my servant Job, for there is none like him in the earth . .
. and he still holdeth fast his integrity, although thou movedst me
against him to destroy him without cause. Said R. Johanan: Were it not
expressly stated in the Scripture, we would not dare to say it. [God
is made to appear] like a man who allows himself to be persuaded
against his better judgment. A Tanna taught: [Satan] comes down to
earth and seduces, then ascends to heaven and awakens wrath;
permission is granted to him and he takes away the soul. And Satan
answered the Lord and said, Skin for skin, yea, all that a man hath
will he give for his life. But put forth thine hand now and touch his
bone and his flesh, and he will renounce thee to thy face. And the
Lord said unto Satan, Behold he is in thine hand: only spare his life.
So Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord and smote Job etc.
R. Isaac said: Satan's torment was worse than that of Job; he was like
a servant who is told by his master, ‘Break the cask but do not let
any of the wine spill.’ Resh Lakish said: Satan, the evil prompter,
and the Angel of Death are all one. He is called Satan, as it is
written, And Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord. He is
called the evil prompter: [we know this because] it is written in
another place, [Every imagination of the thoughts of his heart] was
only evil continually, and it is written here [in connection with
Satan] ‘Only upon himself put not forth thine hand. The same is also
the Angel of Death, since it says, Only spare his life, which shows
that Job's life belonged to him.
R. Levi said: Both Satan and Peninah had a pious purpose [in acting as
adversaries]. Satan, when he saw God inclined to favour Job said, Far
be it that God should forget the love of Abraham. Of Peninah it is
written, And her rival provoked her sore for to make her fret. When R.
Aha b. Jacob gave this exposition in Papunia, Satan came and kissed