According to traditional Jewish thought, who authored the twenty-four books of the Tanach?
According to the Talmud (Bava Basra 14b-15a), the authors were the following (order based on the Gemara there):
- Torah (Pentateuch) - Moshe (Perhaps Yehoshua wrote the last 8 Pesukim)
- Yehoshua (Joshua) - Yehoshua (Finished by Elazar Ben Aharon and Pinchas)
- Shoftim (Judges) - Shemuel
- Shemuel (Samuel) - Shemuel (Finished by Gad Hachozeh and Nasan Hanavi)
- Melachim (Kings) - Yirmiyah
- Yirmiyah (Jeremiah) - Yirmiyah
- Yechezkel (Ezekiel) - Anshei Kenesses Hagedolah
- Yeshaya (Isaiah) - Chizkiyah et al.
- Sheneim Asar (12 Minor Prophets) - Anshei Kenesses Hagedolah
- Rus (Ruth) - Shemuel
- Tehillim (Psalms) - David and various prior authors ("10 Elders")
- Iyov (Job) - Moshe
- Mishlei (Proverbs) - Chizkiyah et al.
- Koheles (Ecclesiastes) - Chizkiyah et al.
- Shir Hashirim (Song of Songs) - Chizkiyah et al.
- Eichah (Lamentations) - Yirmiyah
- Daniel - Anshei Kenesses Hagedolah
- Esther - Anshei Kenesses Hagedolah
- Ezra - Ezra
- Divrei Hayamim (Chronicles) - Ezra and Nechemia
- (Nechemia (Nehemiah) - Nechemia)
Note that these attributions are not absolute in the Jewish tradition, and there are various other (acceptable) opinions. For some further reading about this I would suggest Abarbanel's Introduction to Yehoshua, where he discusses this Talmudic passage at length. See also the Rishonim and Acharonim on this Gemara, which refine some of the Gemara's statements (e.g. what Chizkiyah actually wrote).